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Teaching Open Source Planet

Teaching Open Source Planet is a Planet, a collection of personal blogs by Teaching Open Source community members working to bring the open source way into academia. We write about our inspirations and experiences in learning, teaching, and collaborating within free and open communities. In the spirit of freedom, we share and criticize in order to collectively improve. We hope you enjoy reading our thoughts; if you’re fascinated by what you see, consider adding your voice to the conversation.

Calling Out OkCupid

OkCupid Blocks FirefoxSo the other day, Indiana’s governor signed a bill into law that the Republican controlled legislature passed called the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. The reality of this bill is it has nothing to do with freedom of religion and everything to do with legalizing discrimination.

Anyways, to the point, I hate to open a can of worms but when I heard this news I thought back to this same time last year and remembered how gung ho OkCupid was over Mozilla’s appointment of Brendan Eich because of his personal beliefs and that they ultimately decided to block all Firefox users.

I don’t really think OkCupid should block Indiana but their lack of even a public tweet or statement in opposition of this legislation leads me back to my original conclusion that they were just riding the media train for their own benefit and not because they support the LGBT community.

If you are going to be about supporting the LGBT community, try to at least be consistent in that support and not just do it when it will make you look good in the media!

Opensource.com Article on Mozilla Community Education

Super excited to share my post published on opensource.com for Open Education Week: “Mozilla cares for community with educational resources“.

 

P2PU Course in a Box & Mozilla Community Education

Last year I created my first course on the P2PU platform  titled ‘Hacking Open Source Participation’,  and through that fantastic experience stumbled across a newer P2PU project called Course in a Box. Built on  Jekyll blogging software, Course in a Box makes it easy to create online educational content powered by Github Pages.

As awesome as this project is, there were a number of challenges I needed solve before adopting it for Mozilla’s Community Education Platform:

 Hierarchy

Jekyll is a blog-aware, static site generator. It uses template and layout files + markdown  +  CSS to display posts. Course in a Box comes with a top level category for content called modules, and within those modules are the content  – which works beautifully for single-course purpose

The challenge is , that we need to write education and training materials on a regular basis, and creating multiple Course in a Box(es) would be a maintenance nightmare.  What I really needed was a way to build multiple courses under one or more topics vrs the ‘one course’ model.  To do that, we needed to build out a hierarchy of content.

What I did

Visualized the menu moving from a list of course modules

cib

 

To a list of course topics.

ce

So Marketpulse, DevRel (for example) are course topics.  Topics are followed by courses, which then contain modules.

On the technical side, I added a new variable called submodules to the courses.yml data file.

2015-03-19_2313

Submodules are prefixed with the topic they belong ‘under’, for example: reps_mentor_training is a module in the topic reps.  This is also how module folders are named:

2015-03-19_2319

 

 

 

 

Using this method of prefixing modules with topics, it was super-simple to create a dropdown menu.

2015-03-19_2317

 

As far as Jekyll is concerned, these are all still ‘modules’, which means that even top level topics can have content associated.  This works great for a ‘landing page’ type of introduction to a topic.

Curriculum Modularity

As mentioned, Jekyll is a blogging platform, so there’s no depth or usability  designed into content architecture, and this is a problem with our goal of writing modular curriculum.  I wanted to make it possible to reuse curriculum across not only our instance of Course in a Box, but other instances across Mozilla well.

What I did

I created a separate repository for community curriculum and made this a git submodule  in the _includes folder of Course in a Box.

2015-03-20_1026

 

 

 

 

With this submodule & Jekyll’s include() function  – I was able easily reference our modular content from a post:

{% include community_curriculum/market_pulse/FFOS/en/introduction.md %}

The only drawback is that Jekyll expects all content referenced with include() to be in a specific folder – and so having content in with design files is – gah!  But I can live with it.

And of course we can do this for multiple repositories if we need.  By using a submodule we can stick to certain versions/releases of curriculum if needed.   Additionally, this makes it easier for contributors to focus on ‘just the content’ (and not get lost in Jeykll code) when they are forking and helping improve curriculum.

Finally

I’m thinking about bigger picture of curriculum-sharing, in large part thanks to conversations with the amazing Laura Hilliger about how we can both share and remix curriculum accross more than one instance of Course in a Box.  The challenge is with remixed curriculum, which is essentially a new version – and whether it should ‘ live’ in a difference place than the original repository fork.

My current thinking is that each Course in a Box Instance should have it’s own curriculum repository, included as a git submodule AND other submodules needed, but not unique to the platform. This  repo will contain all curriculum unique to that instance, including remixed versions of content from other repositories.   (IMHO)  Remixed content should not live in the original fork, ans you risk becoming increasing out of sync with the original.

So that’s where I am right now, welcoming feedback & suggestions on our Mozilla Community Education platform (with gratitude to P2PU for making it possible)

 

 

 

 

 

Article on Changing skill sets for a changing world

There is an interesting article entitled "Changing skill sets for a changing world".

You can read it from this web location:

http://www.straitstimes.com/news/opinion/eye-the-world/story/changing-skill-sets-changing-world-20150319

Chart of Educational Web Tools to use in class

One of my colleagues found this interesting chart of educational web tools which can be used in teaching a class:

http://pinterest.com/pin/537476536755205215/?s=3&m=mail

Summer opportunities in FOSS

Two opportunities for summer internships in FOSS:

Google Summer of Code is a global program that offers students stipends to write code for projects from 137 participating FOSS organizations. Applicants must be able to make the project their primary focus during the summer. Participants work remotely from home, while getting guidance from an assigned mentor and collaborating within their project’s community. The application deadline for Google Summer of Code is March 27 and the program dates are May 25 to August 21. The stipend for the program is $5,500 (USD).

https://www.google-melange.com/gsoc/homepage/google/gsoc2015

The Software Freedom Conservancy has an effort to improve diversity in FOSS. The Outreachy program involves a number of organizations offering remote and mentored internships. These internships are open to women (cis and trans), trans men, and genderqueer people. Applicants must be available for full-time, 40-hours a week, internships. The application deadline for Outreachy is March 24 and the program dates are May 25 to August 25. The stipend for the program is also $5,500 (USD). Unlike in Google Summer of Code, participants do not need to be students and non-coding projects are available. In addition to coding, projects include such tasks as graphic design, user experience design, documentation, bug triage and community engagement.

http://outreachy.org

To apply for either program, you need to connect with a participating organization early, select a project you want to work on, create a project plan, and make a few relevant contributions. I encourage you to apply, even if you haven’t had the chance to make contributions.

Mentorship opportunities are also available throughout the year for anyone interested in getting started contributing to FOSS outside of the internship program.


Reflections on Mobile World Congress: the power of an open mobile Web

The mobile Web is experiencing a watershed moment: over the next few years, billions of first-time users will come online exclusively through their smartphones. Mozilla believes it’s critically important these users find a mobile Web that’s open and invites creativity.

This was our rallying cry last week at Mobile World Congress (MWC) in Barcelona, where mobile technology leaders from around the globe discussed the industry’s future. It was encouraging to hear our rallying cry echoed by others: the GSMA, for example, dedicated significant time and floor space to promoting digital inclusivity.

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As a first-timer to MWC, I was really proud of how Mozilla showed up. We unveiled a partnership with French mobile provider Orange, which can equip millions of users across 13 African countries with a Firefox OS smartphone and six months of data and voice service — for just $40. We announced a simple smartphone for first-time users that we’ll release with Verizon in the U.S. next year. And we debuted the beta Webmaker app, a free, open source publishing tool that makes creating local content simple.

Personally, I participated in two panels: One on digital inclusion and one on the power of connected citizens in crisis situations. These sessions gave us a chance to double down on our stance that access alone isn’t the answer — it’s only the first step.

While I disagree with many of their tactics, I was happy to see people like internet.org throwing out a vision for connecting everyone on the planet. But they are really missing the boat on literacy, skills and creativity. Most people will get connected at some point over the next 10 years; the real risk is people not getting the know-how they need to truly unlock the potential of the internet and make their lives better. We were able to effectively get that message across at MWC.

Screen-Shot-2015-03-12-at-2.32.27-PM1-600x425

One of the highlights from the panel discussions was meeting Kartik Sheth from Airtel of India. He talked about Airtel’s onboarding program, which introduces people to the internet by focusing on specific content they really want (a Bollywood music video, for example). Then, they educate users about what services the internet offers and what data costs through that process (e.g. introducing people to YouTube and helping them understand that watching a music video doesn’t cost that much in data). This may sound simple, but it’s actually the kind of “ambient web literacy” that we really need to be thinking about. It has the potential not only to give people very basic internet knowledge, but also to help us avoid what I’m starting to call “the Facebook Effect.”

Of course, Mozilla is committed to web literacy at a much deeper level than just basic onboarding. We spent a good deal of time talking with people at MWC about our growing Learning Networks and Clubs. Our Clubs feature curricula that can be remixed and reimagined, and are held in diverse languages and venues. We met with a ton of people ranging from phone carriers to international agencies aimed at empowering women. And these people expressed interest in helping Mozilla both grow these networks and distribute the Webmaker app.

I left MWC energized by these sort of conversations. Feels like more momentum than ever. If you want to be a part of it, it’s worth checking out Webmaker.org/LocalWeb. This site includes a bunch of the research and partnership opportunities we talked to people about in Barcelona, as well as a link to the Webmaker app beta.


Filed under: education, mozilla, webmakers

18 Download Tema Android Keren Dan Gratis

18 Download Tema Android Keren Dan Gratis - Punya android baru? semoga artikel ini adalah kabar gembira karena bisa melengkapi kekurangan dalam aplikasi yang ada di android sobat. dengan semakin maraknya aplikasi android tak terkecuali juga android theme maka semakin hari semakin bertambah aplikasi baru yang bermunculan, dan aplikasi yang saya share ini biasanya juga disebut dengan theme, atau

Android 5.1: “ignore wireless networks without internet feature” fails

ap_resize.phpAndroid 5.1’s new “ignore wireless networks without internet” feature (which does not have any way to be toggled off) basically disconnects from wifi networks lacking internet. This will cause major issues for tech gadgets such as the Chromecast, GoPro, Parrot’s Lineup of Drones (Bebop, ARDrone, etc).

Basically all of these devices create a WiFi network that has no internet connectivity and in Android 5.1 the behavior is to automatically disconnect from these networks. I confirmed this on a Bebop and Chromecast so far as have other users.

Yikes! Wonder how many months until Google pushes out a maintenance release for this the good news is you can go into Airplane mode and still connect to these devices as workaround.

Article on "INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND CHALLENGES IN MOOCs"

I recently wrote an article on "Instructional Strategies and Challenges in MOOCs" for UniSIM's Journal on Advances in Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.

This article is available online at this location:

http://tlc.unisim.edu.sg/research/AdvSoTL-2/kinchew.html

9th International Conference on Researching Work & Learning

9th International Conference on Researching Work & Learning
9 - 12 December 2015
School of The Arts Singapore
Website: http://www.rwl2015.com

Conference theme: Work and Learning In the Era of Globalisation: Challenges for the 21st Century

Conference Sub-theme:
Work and Learning in Small/Medium Sized Enterprises
Work and Learning in Low Wage

Call for papers:
Deadline for submission of abstracts: 31 March 2015
Acceptance notification: 26 May 2015
Full paper submission: 6 October 2015

ICCE2015: The 23rd International Conference on Computers in Education

ICCE2015: The 23rd International Conference on Computers in Education

November 30 - December 4,2015 Hangzhou, China

Web page: http://icce2015.zjut.edu.cn

Conference Theme: Transforming Education in the Big Data Era

Paper Submission Due: May 12,2015

Notification of Acceptance: August 4,2015
=============================================================
Organized by Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education (APSCE)
http://www.apsce.net/

Hosted by: Zhejiang University of Technology,
Collaborative and Innovative Center for Educational Technology, China

ICCE 2015 is a premier annual international forum for researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and people in the industry in the Asia-Pacific region to connect with international research communities for the worldwide dissemination and sharing of ideas for research in the field of Computers in Education.

The conference program will comprise keynotes, invited talks, paper presentations and poster sessions, workshops, tutorials, interactive events and Doctoral Student Consortia. All the accepted papers in the main conference, workshops and Doctoral Student Consortium will be published in proceedings which will be indexed by Elsevier Bibliographic Databases (e.g., Scopus, Engineering Village and others).

Sub-Conferences:
C1: Artificial Intelligence in Education/Intelligent Tutoring System (AIED/ITS)
and Adaptive Learning (AL)
C2: Computer-supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and Learning Sciences (LS)
C3: Advanced Learning Technologies, Open Educational Content, and
Standards (ALS)
C4: Classroom, Ubiquitous and Mobile Technologies Enhanced Learning (CUMTEL)
C5: Digital Game and Digital Toy Enhanced Learning and Society (GTEL&S)
C6: ICCE Conference on Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL)
C7: Practice-driven Research, Teacher Professional Development and Policy of
ICT in Education (PTP)

Paper categories and page limits:
Full paper (8-10 pages)
Short paper (5-6 pages)
Poster paper (2-3 pages)

Conference Organization:
Conference Chair:
Siu Cheung KONG, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong
International Program Committee (IPC) Coordination Chair:
Hiroaki Ogata, Kyushu University, Japan
International Program Committee (IPC) Coordination Co-Chair:
Weiqin Chen, University of Bergen, Norway
Local Organizing Committee (LOC) Chair:
Feiyue Qiu, Zhejiang University of Technology, China

9th International Conference on e-Learning 2015

-- CALL FOR PAPERS EL 2015 - Deadline for submissions (1st call extension): 10 April 2015

9th International Conference on e-Learning 2015
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, 21 - 24 July 2015
(http://www.elearning-conf.org/)
Part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (MCCSIS 2015)
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, 21 - 24 July 2015
(http://www.mccsis.org/)

* Keynote Speaker (confirmed):
Steven Duggan, Director, Worldwide Education Strategy, Microsoft, USA

* Conference Scope
The e-Learning 2015 conference aims to address the main issues of concern within e-Learning. This conference covers both technical as well as the non-technical aspects of e-Learning.

The conference accepts submissions in the following seven main areas: Organisational Strategy and Management Issues; Technological Issues; e-Learning Curriculum Development Issues; Instructional Design Issues; e-Learning Delivery Issues; e-Learning Research Methods and Approaches; e-Skills and Information Literacy for Learning. For more details please check http://www.elearning-conf.org/call-for-papers

* Paper Submission
This is a blind peer-reviewed conference. Authors are invited to submit their papers in English through the conference submission system by April 10, 2015. Submissions must be original and should not have been published previously.

* Important Dates:
- Submission Deadline (1st call extension): 10 April 2015
- Notification to Authors (1st call extension): 8 May 2015
- Final Camera-Ready Submission and Early Registration (1st call extension): Until 1 June 2015
- Late Registration (1st call extension): After 1 June 2015

* Paper Publication
The papers will be published in book and electronic format with ISBN, will be made available through the Digital Library available at http://www.iadisportal.org/digital-library/showsearch.
The conference proceedings will be submitted for indexing to INSPEC, EI Compendex, Thomson ISI, ISTP and other indexing services.
The best papers will be selected for publishing as extended versions in the IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet (ISSN: 1645-7641), in the Interactive Technology and Smart Education (ITSE) Journal (ISSN:1741-5659) and also in journals from INDERSCIENCE Publishers.

* Conference Contact:
E-mail: secretariat@elearning-conf.org
Web site: http://www.elearning-conf.org/

* Organized by: International Association for Development of the Information Society
Co-Organized by: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

* Registered participants in e-Learning conference may attend the other conferences part of MCCSIS 2015 free of charge.

EdX collaborates with Microsoft to Launch IT Development Courses

EdX collaborates with Microsoft to Launch IT Development Courses

This program is Microsoft’s first initiative with a major MOOC provider and edX’s first corporate member.

(Source: https://www.edx.org/press/edx-collaborates-microsoft-launch-it)

The courses offered include the following:

Programming with C#
C# is a widely-used .NET programming language that is designed to provide a simple yet powerful language for general purpose programming needs. Students will learn the fundamentals of C# supporting cross-platform application development.

Introduction to TypeScript
TypeScript is a new highly-productive superset of JavaScript that is rapidly gaining currency amongst developers who build and maintain large JavaScript applications. In this course, co-authored by Anders Hejlsberg, students will learn language syntax and how to use TypeScript to generate JavaScript for any platform.

Introduction to Bootstrap
Bootstrap is a mobile-first web UI framework originally developed at Twitter that has become a foundational technology for front-end web development. This course will investigate the power of Bootstrap and how to implement it in applications.

Querying with Transact SQL
Transact-SQL is the structured query language for SQL Server. This course will show how to use Transact-SQL to code a range of solutions, ranging from retrieving data from a SQL Server database to implementing transactional programming logic.

Building Cloud Apps with Microsoft Azure
This course takes a patterns-based approach to building real-world cloud solutions on Microsoft Azure. Students will learn the latest tools and technologies in cloud development and study the techniques for cloud-based application design.

Introduction to Office 365 APIs
Office 365 offers the tools users need to get work done anywhere and on any device. In this course, developers will learn how to create robust cross-platform applications using Office 365.

Windows PowerShell Fundamentals
This course provides fundamental knowledge and skills needed to use Windows PowerShell to automate common administrative functions in Windows-based clients and servers. Students will get hands-on practice to replace manual, repetitive, and time-consuming operations with effective, automated solutions in both local and remote scenarios. This course is offered as part of the edX Professional Education series and has a fee associated with it.

Google trying to win Firefox users back

Google is clearly feeling the crunch from Mozilla moving to Yahoo as the default search provider. I noticed this today on Google (I use Yahoo primarily but do use Google too).

Google soliciting Firefox users

After clicking this it brings up an overlay with instructions specifically for Firefox users and notably I did not get this message in other browsers I tried so clearly this detection code they added is specific to trying to win Firefox users back.

Google trying to win Firefox users back

I wish Google instead of trying to fight over search dominance would instead focus on building an awesome open web with Mozilla and others

5th Lecture of the Open University Sri Lanka (OUSL) Distinguised Lecture Series

The fifth lecture of the OUSL Distinguished Lecture Series, organized by the International Academic Relations Division (IRD) in collaboration with the Center for Educational Technology and Media (CETMe), will be delivered by Dr Godson Gatsha, Education Specialist, Higher Education, Commonwealth of Learning, Canada.

You are invited to watch the proceedings online using computers or smart devices at http://www.ou.ac.lk . The lecture will start at 2.30pm Sri Lankan time (UTC/GMT + 5.30 hours) on the 27th of March 2015 (Friday).

The abstract and brief bio of the speaker are attached. All proceedings will be made available as recordings for offline viewing. Please visit the IRD website for more information and recordings of the previous lectures.

http://www.ou.ac.lk/home/index.php/international-academic-relations-division

Webmaker Exploratory

Two years ago I proposed a Webmaker Club at my daughter’s school, and it was turned down in an email:

 Because it involves students putting (possibly) personal info/images on-line we are not able to do the club at this time.  They did say that they may have to reconsider in the future because more and more of life is happening on-line.

One year later, and because our principle is amazing, and sponsored it – I had a  ‘lunch time’ Webmaker Club at my daughter’s elementary school (grades 4 & 5) .  It was great fun, I learned a lot as always thanks to  challenges : handling the diversity of attendance, interests and limited time.   I never get tired of helping kids ‘make the thing they are imagining’.

This year, I was excited to be invited to lead a Webmaker ‘Exploratory’ in our town’s middle school (grades 6-8).   Exciting on so many levels, but two primarily

1) Teachers and schools are recognizing the need for web literacy (and its absence), and that it should be offered as part of primary education.

2) Schools are putting faith in community partnerships to teach.  At least this is what it feels like to me – pairing a technically-strong teacher, with a community expert in coding/web (whatever) is a winning situation.

My exploratory ran for 7 weeks – we started with 28 kids, and lost a few to other exploratories as they realized that HTML (for example) wasn’t something they wanted to learn.  Of those 28 kids, only 3 were girls, which made me sad. I really have to figure out better messaging.   We covered the basics of HTML, CSS and then JavaScript and slowly built a Memory Card game.  Each week I started the class off with a Thimble Template representing a stage in the ‘building’.

Week3, Week4, Week5, Week6, Week7

I wrote specific instructions for each week that we tracked on a wiki, we used Creative Commons Image Search and talked about our digital footprint.

What worked

Having an ‘example make’ of the milestone  for this class where each week kids could see, in advance what they were making.

Having a ‘starting template‘ for the lesson helped those kids who missed a class, catch up quickly.

Being flexible about that template, meant those kids who preferred to work on their own single ‘make’ could still challenge themselves a bit more.

Baked-In Web Literacy  CC image search brought up conversations about ownership, sharing on the web and using a Wiki led to discussion about how Wikimedia editing and editors build content; about participating in open communities.

Sending my teacher-helper the curriculum a few days before, so she could prepare as a mentor.

Having some ‘other activities’ in my back pocket for kids who got bored, or finished early.  These were just things like check out this ‘hour of code tutorial’.

What didn’t work

We were sharing a space with the ‘year book’ team, who also used the internet, and sometimes  our internet was moving slower than a West Coast Banana Slug.  In our class ‘X Ray Goggles’ challenge, kids sat for long periods of time before being able to do much.   Some also had challenges saving/publishing their X Ray Goggles Make.

Week 2, To get around slow internet –  I brought everyone USB sticks and taught them to work locally – this also was a bit of a fail, as I realized many in the group didn’t know simple terms like ‘directory and folder’.  I made a wrong assumption they had this basic knowledge.  Also I should have collected USB sticks after class, because most lost or damaged in the care of students.  We went back to slow internet – although, it was never as bad as that first day.

Having only myself and one teacher with that many kids meant we were running between kids.  Also slightly unfair to the teacher who was learning along with the group. It also sometimes meant kids waited too long for help.

Not all kids liked the game we were making


 

So overall I think it went well, we had some wonderful kids, I was proud of all of them.  The final outcome/learning, the sponsoring teacher, and I realized was that many of the lessons (coding, wikipedia, CC) could easily fit into any class project –  rather than having Webmaking as it’s ‘own class’.

So in future, that may be the next way I participate: as someone who comes into say – a social studies class, or history class and helps students put together a project on the web. Perhaps that’s how community can offer their help to teachers in schools, as a way to limit large commitments like running an entire program, but to have longer-lasting and embedding impact in schools.

For the remainder of the year, and next –  my goal seems to be as a ‘Webmaker Plugin’ , helping integrate web literacy into existing class projects :)

 

 

 

 

Have you tried the Free Open Source SageMath yet?

SageMath (http://sagemath.org/) is a Free Open Source Software that is quickly gaining popularity in many areas of Mathematics. It has a very easy to learn Python-like syntax and gives you access to many open source packages such as: NumPy, SciPy, R, and other. One can freely download and use SageMath from their own computer, or can choose to use it over the Cloud (SageCell and SageCloud are two great options for this).

The great side about SageMath is that this one tool can be used for various Mathematics courses, for both Graduate and Undergraduate students. It can be used

Sage Interact

There are many great online and inprint resources on how to use Sage, but if you happen to be aroung Willmington, NC in March, stop by for a workshop on how one can use SageMath for Numerical Methods  http://sections.maa.org/southeastern/maase/conference2015/workshops.php


Cara Membuat Status Facebook Dengan Peristiwa Aktual (Penting)

Cara Membuat Status Facebook Dengan Peristiwa Aktual (Penting) - Sobat pastinya pernah melihat ada status teman yang mirip dengan status hubungan facebook namun yang ini lebih detail dan bisa di sisipkan text, foto, dan bebas memberikan  deskripsi apapun. facebook memberikan banyak sekali model status seperti status mendengarkan lagu, lalu membuat status tentang hubungan, status pertanyaan di

Elearning Forum Asia 2015 - Abstract deadline extended

The SIM University is hosting the Elearning Forum Asia 2015 as part of its 10th anniversary celebrations.

The deadline for the submission of abstracts has been extended to 31 March 2015.

For more information, please visit the home page at http://elfa2015.unisim.edu.sg.

Journal on the Advances in Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

The latest issue of Advances in Scholarship of Teaching and Learning is now available online.

You can access the journal at http://tlc.unisim.edu.sg/scholarship.html.

Hirschman, Nigerian railroads, and poor open source user interfaces

Hirschman says he got the idea for Exit, Voice, and Loyalty when studying the failure of the Nigerian railroad system to improve quality despite the availability of trucking as a substitute for long-range shipping. Conventional wisdom among economists at the time was that the quality of a good would suffer when it was provisioned by a monopoly. But why would a business that faced healthy competition not undergo the management changes needed to improve quality?

Hirschman’s answer is that because the trucking option was so readily available as an alternative, there wasn’t a need for consumers to develop their capacity for voice. The railroads weren’t hearing the complaints about their service, they were just seeing a decline in use as their customers exited. Meanwhile, because it was a monopoly, loss in revenue wasn’t “of utmost gravity” to the railway managers either.

The upshot of this is that it’s only when customers are locked in that voice plays a critical role in the recuperation mechanism.

This is interesting for me because I’m interested in the role of lock-in in software development. In particular, one argument made in favor of open source software is that because it is not technology held by a single firm, users of the software are not locked-in. Their switching costs are reduced, making the market more liquid and, in theory favorable.

You can contrast this with proprietary enterprise software, where vendor lock-in is a principle part of the business model as this establishes the “installed base” and customer support armies are necessary for managing disgruntled customer voice. Or, in the case of social media such as Facebook, network effects create a kind of perceived consumer lock-in and consumer voice gets articulated by everybody from Twitter activists to journalists to high-profile academics.

As much as it pains me to admit it, this is one good explanation for why the user interfaces of a lot of open source software projects are so bad specifically if you combine this mechanism with the idea that user-centered design is important for user interfaces. Open source projects generally make it easy to complain about the software. If they know what they are doing at all, they make it clear how to engage the developers as a user. There is a kind of rumor out there that open source developers are unfriendly towards users and this is perhaps true when users are used to the kind of customer support that’s available on a product for which there is customer lock-in. It’s precisely this difference between exit culture and voice culture, driven by the fundamental economics of the industry, that creates this perception. Enterprise open source business models (I’m thinking about models like the Pentaho ‘beekeeper’) theoretically provide a corrective to this by being an intermediary between consumer voice and developer exit.

A testable hypothesis is whether and to what extent a software project’s responsiveness to tickets scales with the number of downstream dependent projects. In software development, technical architecture is a reasonable proxy for industrial organization. A widely used project has network effects that increasing switching costs for its downstream users. How do exit and voice work in this context?


The node.js fork — something new to think about

For Classics we are reading Albert Hirschman’s Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Oddly, though normally I hear about ‘voice’ as an action from within an organization, the first few chapters of the book (including the introduction of the Voice concept itselt), are preoccupied with elaborations on the neoclassical market mechanism. Not what I expected.

I’m looking for interesting research use cases for BigBang, which is about analyzing the sociotechnical dynamics of collaboration. I’m building it to better understand open source software development communities, primarily. This is because I want to create a harmonious sociotechnical superintelligence to take over the world.

For a while I’ve been interested in Hadoop’s interesting case of being one software project with two companies working together to build it. This is reminiscent (for me) of when we started GeoExt at OpenGeo and Camp2Camp. The economics of shared capital are fascinating and there are interesting questions about how human resources get organized in that sort of situation. In my experience, there becomes a tension between the needs of firms to differentiate their products and make good on their contracts and the needs of the developer community whose collective value is ultimately tied to the robustness of their technology.

Unfortunately, building out BigBang to integrate with various email, version control, and issue tracking backends is a lot of work and there’s only one of me right now to both build the infrastructure, do the research, and train new collaborators (who are starting to do some awesome work, so this is paying off.) While integrating with Apache’s infrastructure would have been a smart first move, instead I chose to focus on Mailman archives and git repositories. Google Groups and whatever Apache is using for their email lists do not publish their archives in .mbox format, which is pain for me. But luckily Google Takeout does export data from folks’ on-line inbox in .mbox format. This is great for BigBang because it means we can investigate email data from any project for which we know an insider willing to share their records.

Does a research ethics issue arise when you start working with email that is openly archived in a difficult format, then exported from somebody’s private email? Technically you get header information that wasn’t open before–perhaps it was ‘private’. But arguably this header information isn’t personal information. I think I’m still in the clear. Plus, IRB will be irrelevent when the robots take over.

All of this is a long way of getting around to talking about a new thing I’m wondering about, the Node.js fork. It’s interesting to think about open source software forks in light of Hirschman’s concepts of Exit and Voice since so much of the activity of open source development is open, virtual communication. While you might at first think a software fork is definitely a kind of Exit, it sounds like IO.js was perhaps a friendly fork of just somebody who wanted to hack around. In theory, code can be shared between forks–in fact this was the principle that GitHub’s forking system was founded on. So there are open questions (to me, who isn’t involved in the Node.js community at all and is just now beginning to wonder about it) along the lines of to what extent a fork is a real event in the history of the project, vs. to what extent it’s mythological, vs. to what extent it’s a reification of something that was already implicit in the project’s sociotechnical structure. There are probably other great questions here as well.

A friend on the inside tells me all the action on this happened (is happening?) on the GitHub issue tracker, which is definitely data we want to get BigBang connected with. Blissfully, there appear to be well supported Python libraries for working with the GitHub API. I expect the first big hurdle we hit here will be rate limiting.

Though we haven’t been able to make integration work yet, I’m still hoping there’s some way we can work with MetricsGrimoire. They’ve been a super inviting community so far. But our software stacks and architecture are just different enough, and the layers we’ve built so far thin enough, that it’s hard to see how to do the merge. A major difference is that while MetricsGrimoire tools are built to provide application interfaces around a MySQL data backend, since BigBang is foremost about scientific analysis our whole data pipeline is built to get things into Pandas dataframes. Both projects are in Python. This too is a weird microcosm of the larger sociotechnical ecosystem of software production, of which the “open” side is only one (important) part.


Untangling the university web presence with OpenScholar

This is a guest post from the OpenScholar team at Gizra. A lot of public sector organisations have moved recently to an open source CMS solution, citing the benefits not just in cost but also in flexibility, and its great to see examples of universities following suit. If your university has a similar experience, tell us about it in the comments!

OpenScholar at Harvard logoAs in many fields, the introduction of the web into higher education took place gradually and unevenly. This led many academic staff, projects and even whole departments to build their own Web presence independent from each other, using their personal or department budgets to hire external help and grad students to create their websites.

Naturally, this led fairly quickly to the Ivory Tower looking more like the Tower of Babel in terms of web presence, when universities found out they have scores of sites running on various incompatible environments, increasingly difficult to maintain, update or apply security patches – a situation that is still bogging down many academic IT departments.

Many institutions are attempting to fix this by standardizing on a single CMS system, often an Open Source one. When Harvard University faced the problem, it decided to take it one step further and create a CMS focused on academic use.

As a basis, it picked Drupal, one of the most widely used Open Source CMS solutions, powering civic and commercial websites such as WhiteHouse.gov, The Economist, Twitter’s developer website and many others, which already had a strong academic presence. Harvard used Drupal as the base for its own distribution named OpenScholar, which essentially bundles specific backend modules (e.g. bibliography handling) along with a user interface tailored for users in academia.

As the project progressed, we at Gizra were called in for a short consulting gig based on our experience releasing the Organic Groups module for Drupal, which then morphed into a 3 year engagement, at its peak employing four full time developers on our end and an equal number on Harvard’s.

The result is a system that aims to solve both the content creator and IT admin woes. Academic staff are provided with an intuitive UI for smooth website creation. Templates already incorporate the common (and some less common) elements used in such sites: For example, a professor can sign in and have a basic template created. She can then choose to have a calendar on the right sidebar, a blog in the middle, a bibliography page linked on the footer etc – all with an easy to use drag & drop interface.

For the IT side, this helps reduce the amount of user support required, but more critically the system also provide a single, unified codebase upon which all the institution websites are built. Upgrading to a new version or applying a security patch is done in one place, as opposed to keeping dozens of different environments up to date.

OpenScholar now runs all of Harvard University’s websites – 5120 at time of writing – and is starting to be used at Princeton, Berkeley, Virginia Tech and others. Drupal’s excellent multilingual support is helping it spread worldwide, and we’ve recently helped the Hebrew University in Jerusalem add support for right-to-left text, enabling easy creation and management of websites in Hebrew, Farsi, Arabic and other languages.

Leading Drupal cloud hosting providers Acquia and Pantheon now offer a turnkey solution for easily setting up highly optimized, elastic OpenScholar environments without the need for local installation and maintenance at all. For organizations wishing to keep their servers on-site, we’re collaborating with Zend Technologies on a packaged solution that will allow installing a complete secure and optimized OpenScholar environment locally from scratch.

Following the success at Harvard, OpenScholar continues to develop its core as well as adding more UI elements per professor and department’s demands. An RESTful API is now being developed which will allow easier integration with existing systems as well a smoother and more sophisticated front end.

For more information on OpenScholar, visit the OpenScholar website.

Cara Membuat Dan Memasang Kotak Chatting Di Blog

Cara Membuat Kotak Chatting Di Blog -  bagi seorang blogger yang baru membuat blog baru dan  suka juga dengan tampilan blog yang unik perlu mengetahui tentang chatt box yang biasa di pasang di samping blog atau di sidebar blog. tujuannya adalah agar pengunjung bisa dengan mudah berinteraksi antara admin blog ataupun dengan pengunjung yang lainnya. kotak obrolan ini bersifat biasanya bersifat

10 Tips to Writing Better Quiz Questions

10 Tips to Writing Better Quiz Questions

http://lectora.com/uncategorized/10-tips-to-writing-better-quiz-questions/

By Christie Wroten

Date: March 5, 2014

E-learning Track on Science, Technology, and Logistics - Bangkok, Thailand

Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Congress
The Track on Science, Technology, and Logistics

Venue: Impact Muang Thong Thani, Bangkok, Thailand
Date: Wednesday, 3 June 2015, 10.30 - 16.00
Chairman of the Organizing Committee for the Track:
Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman, charmonman@gmail.com

Tracking Microlearning with Tin Can API

By Tadej Stanic
30 April 2014
URL: http://elearningindustry.com/tracking-microlearning-with-tin-can-api

Learning analytics is one of the holy grails of today’s eLearning industry. It is a part of the Internet mainstream called big-data and Tin Can API or xAPI, as a relatively new technical standard, is introducing this mainstream to online learning. With this article the author will share some thoughts on how microlearning and Tin Can API might be the key factors of the future learning.

API - Application Program Interface
Chris Tyler (ctyler)

Initial Current and Temperatures on the HiKey from 96Boards



I was fortunate to receive an early access HiKey board from the 96Boards project at Linaro Connect last week.

This board is powered by an 8-core, 64-bit Cortex-A53 ARMv8-A Kirin 620 SOC from HiSilicon with 1GB of LPDDR3 RAM, a Mali 450MP4 GPU, dual USB, eMMC and micro-SD storage, 802.11g/n, and high- and low-speed expansion connectors with I2C, SPI, DSI, GPIO, and USB interfaces.

So far, this has been an incredible board to work with, despite some teething pains with the pre-release/early access software and documentation (and a few minor quibbles with the design decisions behind the 96Boards Consumer Edition spec and this first board). It's not in the same performance class as the ARMv8 server systems that we have in the EHL at Seneca, but it's a very impressive board for doing ARMv8 porting and optimization work -- which is its intended purpose, along with providing a great board for hacker and maker communities.

I experimented with the board last week and took some readings at home today, and thought I'd share some of my findings on board current draw and temperatures, because it may be useful to those planning alternate power supplies and considering temperatures and airflows for cases:

A couple of other random observations about the board:

I'm looking forward to the release of WiFi drivers and UEFI bootloader support soon, as promised by the 96Boards project.

More notes to follow...










Kindness in (Open Source and Online) Communities

Kindness is the language which the deaf can hear and the blind can see.

~Mark Twain

I’ve had this post swirling around in my head for a while.  A post on my experiences and preference to lead, participate and negotiate conflict in online communities through kindness.

I might  be writing it as a proposal to others, but also it might be a bit of therapy to review this strategy for myself.

Kindness is the tone you set for yourself

When we consider approaching community conversation with kindness and patience; when we squash that immediate need to react we’re setting a tone of kindness .  It is not, as you might assume, solely for the benefit of others.  I believe much more that kindness is a selfish act,  siding with optimism for the community conversations  guides  outcomes far more meaningful than ‘being right’, or getting the most of what you came for.

Regret is harder to overcome, than leading with kindness will ever be.

Measure Twice, Respond Once

If  a conversation topic or introduction starts off in a way that makes you feel defensive.  Stop.  Read it again.  I know it’s hard, but looking past negative words  – to find the truth in a conversation often makes the difference to everyone involved.  Negativity could be as a result of events of the past, misconception and defensiveness.  It might have nothing to do with you at all, and so digging out the root of the conversation and focusing there, can bring sunshine.  I actually skim negative, and unprovoked comments altogether as a kindness to myself.

Every personality exists in community.  With the invitation of ‘open’  –  the simple act of getting shit done can come laced with barbs of protest, and  challenge.  Even when it’s clear that intentions may not be positive, reaching out with a benefit of the doubt can often turn that around.  I have found new allies this way.

Sometimes people just want to know they’re being heard.

Have a Point

If you are reaching out with a concern, complaint or comment  have a clear point.  A discombobulation of emotion mixed in with accusations and assumptions  will get you nowhere near the solution you’re seeking.  Instead of writing long posts/emails/forums with an assumption you’ll get push-back – dare to assume  people will respond with a desire to help!  Narrow your point into an ‘ask’, that welcomes feedback.

Make sure your point isn’t simply to ‘be proven correct’, or to expose what little someone else knows. There are better things to do in the world.

You could be wrong.  Learning is often a humbling experience (if you’ve ever watched a babys first steps), but learning and growing is a gift.  Don’t close the door to being wrong.

Check your Ego

If being right is a goal for your communication – then that’s a debate, and those can be good fun when both people sign-up.

However spending time providing the community with your credentials as a way to influence opinion, does far less than the act of listening, acknowledging the points of others, and specifically calling out feedback that helps you. Learn about others, there are some very brilliant, experienced yet quiet people lurking in our community – you may not realize the depth of someone else’s knowledge without making room for it.

Consider entering discussions with the goal of having your mind changed!

Ending with Kindness

By starting kindness with you, you can more easily recognize when your participation becomes of risk to yourself.  Giving people he benefit of the doubt, being open to correction, extending help – whatever kindness matters, does not mean taking people’s crap.  It doesn’t mean accepting abusive behavior or bulling. At. All.  By staying true to the good person you are, bad behavior of others is much more obvious.  You need to do less talking in general.
I’ll end by saying that I don’t think I have all of this covered – I’ve found this approach to work, well often.  But I forget too, I get caught up in negativity, defensiveness and justice – but  ‘what negativity feels like’ only confirms, and brings me back to what I feel is this more centered, and healthy approach.
 I would be interested in other day-to-date strategies for keeping communities, discussion and outcomes positive.
image credit: Mark K

 

 

Outspoken on Open

Working in the openOne thing I have tried to advocate for no matter what project it is I’m contributing to is good process and transparency. You would think that things like good process and transparency come naturally to open source projects but the thing is, no matter how old or new the project is there are always people coming and going who have varying depths of experience in doing work in the open and as a result open is not always the default in open source projects.

Most recently, I have been pushing for more transparency in some programs at Mozilla and specifically in the area that deals with community and not product. You might have thought that teams doing work around community at Mozilla are already operating transparently while the reality is in practice open is hard.

One thing I am trying to convince folks though is that working in the open is not so hard that we ignore the principles of working in the open and avoid trying to build a good foundation of open processes. One thing I am finding when I have these discussions though is people do not always feel empowered to speak out about working in the open. Simply put teams and organizations will get in these status quos where they put off this hard work and nobody really comes around often to challenge the status quo because often the debates that pursue of working in the open are filled with disagreement.

Have you ever been outspoken in a open source project about working in the open?

I would love to hear your thoughts in the comments and this will probably be a series of blog posts I write over the coming months on working in the open.

Cara Berkomentar Dengan Gambar Bergerak Lucu di Komentar Dan Chatt Facebook

Cara Berkomentar dengan Gambar Bergerak di Komentar Dan Chatt Facebook - Tujuan menggunakan gambar bergerak ini sangatlah beragam yang jelas komentar akan lebih menarik dan ekspresif dibandingkan hanya sebuah text saja atau gambar yang tidak  bergerak. dan Mungkin akan kelihatan lebih seru saat menggunakan sesuatu yang bisa bergerak seperti gambar GIF pada umumnya dan semua gambar ini bisa sobat

Open Source Software Licensing Trends

This is a guest post from Jim Farmer, Chairman of Instructional Media + Magic Inc. Jim has also written a series of feature articles on open source for Informa’s London-based Intellectual Property Magazine.

Higher education has traditionally been a knowledge “sharing” environment. Early software was exchanged without license and, in practice, without restrictions. As the monetization of intellectual property, including software, becomes pervasive more restrictive software licenses have been introduced and enforced. These licenses impose legal duties of the user of “open source software” that could be unexpected and have undesirable consequences.

The first license restrictions were a series of “copyleft” licenses that imposed a duty of a user who makes modifications of open source software to share these modifications with others. In addition, the terms and conditions of licenses of the modified software is required for all subsequent users as well. Richard Stallman is credited with launching the free software movement. He used software licensing to enforce this desired behaviour. In practice the open source community was already sharing software so the “copyleft” licenses were not a substantial burden. Disputes were avoided by an email or telephone request, almost always honoured.

Some open source software from higher education because commercial software products with proprietary licenses. Examples include North Carolina State University’s statistical package that led to SAS, and the University of Chicago’s package that led to SPSS. Their contribution was documentation and standardized stable versions of the software. Subsequently this strategy was used by Red Hat to introduce Red Hat Linux.

Extending Stallman’s practice of imposing duty, the recent and rarely used Affero license has imposed additional and potentially burdensome restrictions on distribution of modifications made to software used as a service over a network.

Higher education is becoming more sensitive to these license restrictions. There are three recent licensing choices that illustrate the trade-off decisions that were made.

edX Seeks More Software Users

Harvard University and MIT had adopted the Affero software license for their edX learning technology platform. In September, Ned Batchelder, edX Sofrtware Architect wrote “…one license does not fit all purposes, which is why we’ve decided to relicense one part, our XBlock API, under Apache 2.0.”

As part of its license compliance software and services, Black Duck compiles use of the various licenses. Using this data the edX shift from restrictive to permissive licensing is illustrated in Figure 1. The data suggests edX’s action was consistent with trends in open source licensing.

Graph showing license usage in open source software; Affero is less than 1% and rank ed 16th most popular; Apache 2.0 is ranked 3rd most popular, after GPL 2.0 and MIT.

Figure 1 – Use of Open Source Software Licenses

Batchelder describes the motivation for the change:

The XBlock API will only succeed to the extent that it is widely adopted, and we are committed to encouraging broad adoption by anyone interested in using it. For that reason, we’re changing the license on the XBlock API from AGPL to Apache 2.0.

 

The Apache license is permissive: it lets adopters and extenders do what they want with their changes. They can release them under a copyleft license like AGPL, or a permissive license like Apache, or even keep them closed-source.

Using Black Duck data for 2009 and 2015, the licensing trends in Figure 2 show the sharp increases in use of the MIT and Apache permissive licenses.

Figure 2.Trends in license use from 2009-2015, showing increases for MIT and ASL, decrease in GPL and LGPL

Figure 2 – Change in Use 2009 to 2015

According to Black Duck’s data on the use of software licenses, Apache 2.0 – used by 19% – has moved from its 7th ranking to 3rd most used software license. The GNU General Public License is still the most frequently used at 25%. However the GPL license has lost 21.4% of user share since 2009 and Apache has gained 12.4%. The least restrictive MIT license grew from 3.3% to 19.0% during the same period to become the second most frequently used open source software license.

The least restrictive MIT license has few restrictions: You can not sue MIT that the software didn’t do what you thought it should—“fitness of purpose.” Also it mandates attribution via reproduction of the copyright statement.

There is also a difference based on the purpose of the license. Figure 3 shows the differences in use by software developers of open source software, on downloads of the software selected for use, and what companies are using. For enterprise use the Apache license is most used.

Figure 3. License usage by purpose. Figure 3 – License Use by Purpose

Donnie Berkholz at RedMonk quantified the shift toward permissive licensing using data from July 2012. He summarized his results using the ratio of permissive to copyleft licenses. The results are shown in Figure 4. Licenses for both Java and JavaScript—two of the most frequently used—became more frequently used than copyleft licenses in 2008. Cumulatively in 2010 the majority of open source software licenses were permissive licenses.

Figure 4: Upwards trend for permissive licensing (source: redmonk)

Figure 4 – Shift of Open Source Software to Permissive Licensing.

In December 2014 ZDNet’s Steven J Vaughan-Nicholas summarized::

“The three primary permissive license choices (Apache/BSD/MIT) … collectively are employed by 42 percent. They represent, in fact, three of the five most popular licenses in use today.” These permissive licenses have been gaining ground at GPL’s expense. The two biggest gainers, the Apache and MIT licenses, were up 27 percent, while the GPLv2, Linux’s license, has declined by 24 percent.

He also reported that in July 2013 Aaron Williamson, senior staff counsel at the Software Freedom Law Center, documented that 85.1 percent of GitHub programs had no license. He commented:

Yes, without any license, your code defaults to falling under copyright law. In that case, legally speaking no one can reproduce, distribute, or create derivative works from your work. You may or may not want that. In any case, that’s only the theory. In practice you’d find defending your rights to be difficult.

The primary edX learning system continues to use the Affero license. Apereo Foundation’s Sakai learning system is licensed under Apache; Moodle uses the GPL license.

edX’s move to a less restrictive license will likely increase use. To gain additional users, perhaps the Apache license should be used for the edX learning system as well.

Kuali Foundation Seeks to Protect Cloud User Market

Administrative software being developed by the participants in the Kuali Foundation was licensed under the Educational Community License (ECL)—an OSI (Open Source Initiative) approved special purpose license for higher education software based o the Apache license. In August the Kuali Foundation Chair Brad Wheeler announced “… the Kuali Foundation is creating a Professional Open Source commercial entity.” He also said “Kuali software now and in the future will remain open source and available for download and local implementations.” The same day the Kuali Foundation posted Brad Wheeler’s blog Kuali 2.0 FAQs. He wrote “The current plan is for the Kuali codebase to be forked and re-licensed under Affero General public License (AGPL). AGPL allows customers to download and use the code at will, but requires partners trying to monetize the software to contribute code changes back to Kuali. This is intended to discourage partners/Kuali Commercial Affiliates (KCAs) from receiving revenue from hosting Kuali software, but does not prohibit them.”

The Foundation asked its participants to transfer their software development to Kuali Inc.and use their proposed cloud-based systems. The Kuali Foundation continues to make available the current version of its software under ECL. The cloud versions also include software proprietary to Kuali Inc.

On September 8, 2014, Chuck Severance wrote :

… the successful use of AGPL3 to found and fund “open source” companies that can protect their intellectual property and force vendor lock-in *is* the “change” that has happened in [Kuali’s] past decade that underlies both of these announcements and the makes a pivot away from open source and to professional open source an investment with the potential for high returns to its shareholders.

Severance suggested how to achieve “high returns:”

First take VC [venture capitalists] money and develop some new piece of software. Divide the software into two parts – (a) the part that looks nice but is missing major functionality and (b) the super-awesome add-ons to that software that really rock. You license (a) using the AGPL3 and license (b) as all rights reserved and never release that source code.

 

You then stand up a cloud instance of the software that combines (a) and (b) and not allow any self-hosted versions of the software which might entail handing your (b) source code to your customers.

On October 2 at Educause, reporting for e-Literate on the Kuali session, Phil Hill identified “(b):”

The back-and-forth involved trying to get a clear answer, and the answer is that the multi-tenant framework to be developed / owned by KualiCo will not be open source – it will be proprietary code. I asked Joel Dehlin for additional context after the session, and he explained that all Kuali functionality will be open source, but the infrastructure to allow cloud hosting is not open source.

Referring to multi-tenancy, Inside Higher Ed’s Carl Straumsheim described the purpose of “(b)” confirming Chuck Severance’s scenario:

“I’ll be very blunt here,” [Kuali’s Barry] Walsh said. “It’s a commercial protection — that’s all it is.”

In a 10 September blog post Locked into Free Software? Unpicking Kuali’s AGPL Strategy OSS Watch’s Scott Wilson considered the implications of AGPL. He pointed out “The GPL license requires any modifications of code it covers to also be GPL if distributed [emphasis added]. The use of a cloud-based service is not considered distribution of code. So a user could offer a cloud service without making modifications available to the community. Wilson wrote:

The AGPL license, on the other hand, treats deployment of websites and services as “distribution”, and compels [his emphasis] anyone using the software to run a service to also distribute the modified source code.

Wilson also reported Bradley Kuhn, one of the original authors of AGPL, in a talk at Open World Forum in 2012 said “… at that time, some of the most popular uses of AGPL were effectively “shakedown practices” (in his words). This unfortunate characterization may rarely be true.

The AGPL license does meet the Open Source Initiative’s criteria of an open source license. But the pressures of monetization causes its terms to be used inconsistent with the connotation of “open source.”

Oracle Builds a Community?

On September 29th at Oracle World, Oracle announced their Oracle Student Cloud and their investment in the Oracle Customer Strategic Design Program. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, University of Texas System and the University of Wisconsin-Madison will participate “to provide guidance and domain expertise that will help shape the design and development of Oracle Student Cloud. A press release described the initiative:

The Design Program could be interpreted as combining the contributions of a community as found in open source development, and a proprietary model that would use the standard Oracle license. If successful this innovation could benefit both Oracle and colleges and universities.

In an October 7 blog Cole Clark, Global Vice President Education and Research industry, reflected on Oracle World. He included Stanford University as a participant. He also said a fifth partner in Europe would be named the following week at the Utrecht NL Higher Education User Group meeting.

He wrote:

We believe this [Oracle Customer Strategic Design Program] gives us a broad spectrum of the higher ed panoply from which to draw a great deal of insight and council [counsel] as we build the next generation student system in the cloud with mobile and social attributes at the core of the development initiative.

He also described the role of open source software:

Don’t get me wrong; there are definitely areas where Kuali (and other open source initiatives) fill gaps that the private sector will likely never pursue – Coeus [research administration] and the open library environment are excellent examples.  Parts of Unizen may be another.  But in the broader areas … where ample (and growing) competition exists to drive innovation up and costs down, there is no justification for investing shrinking resources in higher education on software development and support.

The description of contribution expected of the participants—guidance and domain expertise—and their diverse needs and competencies suggest functional requirements and designs of student services that improve the Oracle software. The reference to the growth of non-traditional programs demonstrated sensitivity to unfilled needs of current student systems. If these are incorporated into the Oracle product, it would benefit their college and university customers. And perhaps be available earlier than other alternatives.

Incorporating customer feedback on products is becoming a standard industry practice for consumer goods. If broadly implemented Clark’s innovation could change the relationship between higher education and software suppliers.

There is one concern. Oracle declined to answer the question whether the participants would be required to sign non-disclosure agreements. It they are, many of the benefits of the broad open communications found in open source development projects may be lost.

Observations

  1. The data on the shift from restrictive to permissive licensing suggests, but does not confirm, broader participation and use of software using permissive licenses. edX may want to consider relicensing the learning platform itself using an Apache license to attract more users of its software
  2. Kuali Inc.’s experience introducing the Aferro license demonstrates how restrictions can be perceived based, in part, on the intent of the copyright holder. The many yet-undefined terms that could be a “cause of action” enabling a copyright holder to bring a legal action against a user presents risks that advice of a licensing specialist or an intellectual property attorney may be needed to fully understand.
  3. Oracle Higher Education may benefit colleges and universities by introducing broad collaboration similar to open source communities. That should be encouraged. But implementation may be fragile in the sense participants, users, and prospects are likely sceptical of success. Complete transparency and open communication about the work of the Strategic Design Program may make the true purpose better known and results more widely used.

The emergence of “intellectual property”—software licenses in these cases—has created monetary incentives for copyright holders. Assessment of licensing restrictions and risks should now be incorporated into all information technology decisions.

This guest post is (c) Jim Farmer, and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. The graphic in Figure 4 is by Donnie Berkholz of RedMonk, and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 license.

Community Education – Building Together

So, yesterday I wrote an introductory post : Mozilla Community Education in 2015 with a promise to write a each day leading up to our first Community Education Working Group Call on Thursday.  I wrote about our vision for Community Education as core to the virtuous circle in Mark Surman’s vision  , and how the strength and leadership of the Mozilla Reps  will act as a launching pad for participation across,  and well beyond the project.  Today I want to talk about a vision for virtuous circle of education & learning at Mozilla.

But first, for context – how we’ll be working:

Functional Area Group

“Volunteers who understand Mozilla’s top-level goals feel they have a bigger impact with their contributions”.  

       – David Eaves Contributor Survey of  Mozilla Community

The Mozilla Reps program will be initiating specialized groups for participation.  It might sound a lot like a previous Reps initiative: Special Interest Groups (SIG), and on the surface that’s understandable  – but here’s how they will be different:  these groups will be focused on targeted delivery of functional area goals.  Education & curriculum lending to this success will be curated in partnership with product teams,  and their goals.  We can’t seem to  pick a name for these groups – suggestions?

These will be leadership groups, modeled similarly to the Reps program itself, with a mentorship structure to scale.  Because, this too is a launchpad, group participation needs to expand well beyond reps to be successful.

Pilots

We talked a lot about Pilots in Portland, but we’re just as likely to call these ‘experiments’ because we’re still learning what works.  Right now Pilots are simply time-bound initiatives initiated by request of functional areas, and executed by their Functional Group. Education & Curriculum will mobilize teams to have the impact product teams need. Curriculum in many cases will need to be localized ( so if you are interested in localizing learning content, please let me know!)

Building Together

2579999558_38bacd1fa4_z

image credit: Robyn Jay

In the last month, I’ve spoken with many leaders of Education at Mozilla –  amazing people like Laura Hilliger, Janet Swisher, Diane Tate and Hoosteeno (you should read this post on Learning Experiments on MDN), all expertly working in this space of curating and delivering content; their teams already successful at pushing product success through the opportunity of education.

What I’m recognizing is that Community Education can also connect virtuous circle between our teams, with community and with external organizations like Open Hatch. For functional area initiatives and pilots,  we can leverage some of the great work of MDN with ‘Topic in a Box‘, with Webmaker we can perhaps connect and centralize efforts building content for P2PU ‘Course in a Box‘ (and beyond).  With amazing Reps and contributors like Michaela Brown, and MDN learning resources,  it’s  actually realistic to think we can scale Open Hatch + Mozilla events at Universities.  And that’s before I even get to benefits of sharing brain-power, ideas, experience – enthusiasm. So yes,  I’m super excited at the potential and hope you are too.

 

Tomorrow: Community Education Survey, Recognition That Matters

Featured image credit: Stephen Burton

 

 

 

Mozilla Reps Council AMA

Cross-post of Majken Conner’s invitation to participate in the first Mozilla Reps Council AMA.  Come ask us questions this Thursday!


This Thursday, launching during the Reps call, council will be doing a 24h
AMA. They’ll be using Discourse, so you only need your Persona account, no
need to sign up to Reddit to post. You won’t need to log in to read the AMA.

For those of you that haven’t done an AMA before, AMA stands for “Ask Me
Anything.“, made popular by the SubReddit. It’s a way to get to know someone, usually a way to find out
what it’s like to have a certain job. The AMA is your chance to get to know
the individual council members as people, and also to understand what it’s
like to actually be on council. Silly questions are ok, if you’ve always
wanted to know what Emma’s favorite colour is, now’s your chance to ask!
Remember to be respectful though, don’t ask something that will probably
make someone uncomfortable.

They’ll be keeping track of suggestions and discussions that should be
continued outside of the AMA so that they aren’t lost when the event is
over. Debates over problems with the program or changes to how it should be
run will need more than 24 hours and deserve to be highlighted properly.

The AMA will take place here –
https://discourse.mozilla-community.org/c/reps/council-ama (you’ll be able
to access it on Thursday)

To ask a new question you should start a new topic. Discourse admins will
be on-hand to help split out sub-conversations into new threads.

If you want to ask all of council a question, you can address them by
typing @repscouncil – Discourse editor will substitute this text with their
individual usernames.  You can also use @ to address a single council
member, @emma_irwin will notify Emma that you’re addressing her
specifically.

I don’t believe the entire council will be available at once, but we should
have at least 1 council member available at any time over the full 24h to
make sure responses come quickly.

Please help me build an FAQ by asking any questions you have here –
https://remo.etherpad.mozilla.org/council-AMA-FAQ – and add +1 to any
questions you had that are already listed.

image credit: Ed Schipul

Mozilla Community Education in 2015

Last year, to research some theories I had about empowering community, I polled numerous open source communities about their experiences as contributors. Some key responses to  “why do you contribute” were:

The majority of responses identified learning opportunities and mentoring as a key motivators for participation, and (perhaps even more importantly)  continued participation.  So while, yes,  the impact and potential impact of the project is often the vessel we arrive on –  that alone appears unlikely to sustain contribution.   And that’s why I’m so excited that Community Education, and mentorship are core to mobilizing participation goals for 2015.

” At the core of the plan is the assumption that we need to build a virtuous circle between 1) participation that helps our products and programs succeed and2) people getting value from participating in Mozilla.

Mark Surman on Mozilla’s Participation Plan for 2015

I see education as a key connector of value for people and product. For me it’s less like a hypothesis and more like an opportunity to grow what I have, myself, experienced as a contributor and mentor:  that community education and opportunity to learn builds a tenacity and dedication to give back.  Being effective matters to product and person.

” Contributors who received code reviews within 48 hours on their first bug have an exceptionally high rate of returning and contributing.”   -David Eaves survey of Mozilla contributors.

Educational opportunity is also a ‘people-connector’ :  opportunity to give and receive feedback from humans; to know what to what is expected of you,  and what you can expect from others lends traction and speed.   

So what will Community Education look like at Mozilla?  How will it lend to this virtuous circle?   Quite a few ways actually.    I’ll share this in three separate blogs posts this week leading up to our Community Education Working Group Call on Thursday.

Building from our Strength – Remo

Thanks to yet another survey, we have a clear idea idea about what people want to learn, how they want to learn, and some idea of ‘recognition that matters’ looks like.   Most significantly, we have a very successful, strong volunteer leadership platform in the Mozilla Reps, and real examples of community education pushing product success like Mozilla Webmaker and MDN. Remo will be the launchpad for Community Education, and we’ve already started building an education platform, and a base curriculum for mentors.

1368918160

image credit williamtheaker

The visual of Reps as a launchpad is really important.  It reflects the experience, dedication and power of our community leadership program, our commitment to working collaboratively across the project, and that we intend to pick up speed.

The virtuous circle of participation needs to be visible from space.

space

Tomorrow:  Functional Area Groups, Pilots/Experiments and Recognition That Matters.

 

banner image credit: Christopher Michel.

 

 

Join me at the Open Source track at Hopper 2015

I’m already looking forward to attending the 2015 Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, October 12-14, 2015. In Houston no less! Stormy Peters and I are co-chairing an Open Source track and we’re really excited to hear about the new things happening in the open source world. I encourage all of my open source friends and colleagues to submit to the track. Formats include presentations, lightning talks, panels, workshops, and birds of a feather. We’re looking for quality presentations that report on advancements in FOSS development and use. Workshops that help folks get started in or advance understanding of FOSS and tools are also desired.

The last time I attended Hopper was in 2012 and I took two female students.  They returned to Western New England University changed; excited by the possibility of a technical career and overjoyed to see so many women in technology. Coincidentally I have been reading “Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age” by Kurt Beyer. I’ve been fascinated to read about her contributions to computing and to the war effort. So please join us in Houston for Hopper 2015 by submitting something to the Open Source track!


Get a free U2F Yubikey to test on Firefox Nightly

U2F, Yubikey, Universal 2nd FactorPasswords are always going to be vulnerable to being cracked. Fortunately, there are solutions out there that are making it safer for users to interact with services on the web. The new standard in protecting users is Universal 2nd Factor (U2F) authentication which is already available in browsers like Google Chrome.

Mozilla currently has a bug open to start the work necessary to delivering U2F support to people around the globe and bring Firefox into parity with Chrome by offering this excellent new feature to users.

I recently reached out to the folks at Yubico who are very eager to see Universal 2nd Factor (U2F) support in Firefox. So much so that they have offered me the ability to give out up to two hundred Yubikeys with U2F support to testers and will ship them directly to Mozillians regardless of what country you live in so you can follow along with the bug we have open and begin testing U2F in Firefox the minute it becomes available in Firefox Nightly.

If you are a Firefox Nightly user and are interested in testing U2F, please use this form (offer now closed) and apply for a code to receive one of these Yubikeys for testing. (This is only available to Mozillians who use Nightly and are willing to help report bugs and test the patch when it lands)

Thanks again to the folks at Yubico for supporting U2F in Firefox!

Update: This offer is now closed check your email for a code or a request to verify you are a vouched Mozillian! We got more requests also then we had available so only the first two hundred will be fulfilled!

Cara Mengupload Video Ke Youtube Dari Awal Sampai Selesai

Cara Mengupload Video Ke youtube - Saya yakin Jika sobat mencari artikel tentang upload video ke youtube bisa jadi ada beberapa alasan yang paling umum, yang pertama adalah alasan karena rasa penasaran ingin mengetahui bagaimana caranya, bisa juga karena ingin mendapatkan uang, atau  mungkin karena ingin terkenal, atau bisa jadi karena ingin menjual barang, atau hanya sekedar iseng share kepada

Connecting WeBWorK to Moodle 2.x's question type for use in Moodle quizzes.

This note was posted on moodle's quiz forum on January 7, 2015.
https://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=277922

I am working on plugging WeBWorK in as a back end for analyzing mathematics questions in a way similar to STACK. I will be using the opaque question type as a starting place. 

I am just beginning this project and I expect to have questions for this forum as I proceed so I thought it a good idea to introduce myself.

I am Mike Gage, a math professor at the University of Rochester, (Rochester, NY, USA) and one of the originators of the open source online homework system WeBWorK. It was originally designed to deal with mathematics at the calculus level but it now has questions from middle school through ordinary differential equations, linear algebra and complex analysis.

It already interoperates with Moodle as an assignment module -- there is single sign-on between Moodle and WeBWorK and after the student finishes their WeBWorK homework assignment the grades are returned to the google grade book. My goal is to make WeBWorK work as a question type for Moodle2.x. We already have a question type version for Moodle1.9 

For those interested here is an example of a course using WeBWorK for assignments (search for the spiderweb icon and click on it). https://hosted2.webwork.rochester.edu/moodle/course/view.php?id=3

For those interested in an example of WeBWorK being used to create question types in Moodle 1.9 (Created by Matt Leventi in 2007) https://devel1.webwork.rochester.edu/moodle/mod/quiz/attempt.php?q=256&forcenew=1 
(you can log in using the guest button). This version could use improvement but I don't plan to work on this further unless there is a large demand -- it seems better to put the effort into a Moodle2.x version. 

Finally for those interested in WeBWorK in its native form you can look at this link:
https://hosted2.webwork.rochester.edu/webwork2/2014_07_UR_demo/ (you can login using the guest button)

The home wiki for WeBWorK is http://webwork.maa.org/wiki

Thank you in advance for considering the questions I will have as I start on adapting
the opaque question type to WeBWorK. smile

Take care,

Mike 

Call for Help: Mentors Wanted!

Western Oregon UniversityThis is very last minute as I have not been able to find enough people interested by directly approaching folks, but I have a great mentoring opportunity for Mozillians. One of my friends is a professor at Western Oregon University and tries to expose her students to a different Open Source project each term and up to bat this term is the Mozilla Project.

So I am looking for mentors from across the project who would be willing to correspond a couple times a week and answer questions from students who are learning about Firefox for Android or Firefox for Desktop.

It is ok not to be an expert on all the questions coming your way but if you do not know then you would help find the right person and get them the answers they need so they do not hit a roadblock.

This opportunity is open to both staff and contributors and the time commitment should not exceed an hour or two a week but realistically could be as little as twenty minutes or so a week to exchange emails.

Not only does this opportunity help expose these students to Open Source but also to contributing to our project. In the past, I have mentored students from WOU and the end result was many from the class continued on as contributors.

Interested? Get in touch!

Support Collab House Indiegogo Campaign

I wanted to quickly post a simple ask to Mozillians to please share this indiegogo campaign being ran by Mozillian Rockstar Vineel Pindy

A Mozilla event at Collab HouseA Mozilla event at Collab House

who has been a contributor for many years. Vineel is raising money for Collab House, a Collaborative Community Space in India which has been used for many Mozilla India events and other open source projects.

By sharing the link to this campaign or contributing some money to the campaign, you will not only support the Mozilla India community but will further Mozilla’s Mission by enabling communities around the globe that help support our mission.

Lets make this campaign a success and support our fellow Mozillians! If every Mozillian shared this or contributed $5 I bet we could have this funded before the deadline!

Teaching Contribution

There are a lot of wonderful challenges in open source: opportunities to learn, to make a difference and to impact the world in a positive way.  There are good difficulties learning in open source: hard problems we need to solve-for, but usually we’re OK with that- we’re problem solvers, fixers, inventors, builders… we invest in challenge for causes we care about.

But for technical contributors, the potential impact of an individual person weighs heavily on their ability to survive on-boarding. The not-so-good difficulty:  Navigating wikis, understanding communication tools, getting  a local environment up & running – understanding how to ask for help; how to find tasks that match interests + skillset.  It’s can be too hard – too discouraging, and so drop-off occurs. But when you are successful :  pride, accomplishment, impact,  community, repeat.

Knowing this is why I’m such a fan of Lukas Blakk’s Ascend Project, and  Open Hatch Comes to Campus, an initiative of Open Hatch.  OHCTC brings curriculum covering the practical skills students need to contribute to open source projects to university campuses as  1-day mentor-lead events. If you think students are already learning about open source participation in higher education, you would (mostly) be wrong.

I ran an Open Hatch Comes to Campus event back in October, focused on contributing to the Webmaker Code base.  That experience inspired me to create this online course focused on the tools & social norms of contributing, which lead me to do a bit more thinking about how curriculum can be developed for project-specific on-boarding.  I’m thinking a LOT about this actually.

The results of my online and offline events were super-encouraging, and pointed out just how important it is to create deliberate ‘learning by doing’ opportunities around project on-boarding.  ‘Ask us in IRC’  is not a direction people necessarily understand and the problem is magnified: ‘How do get help for asking for help in IRC ‘?  And this is true for experienced engineers as well.

This year I hope to grow this experiment a bit more, through deliberately themed ‘Mozilla contribution + Open Hatch . To that end, I spent a bit of time scheming with Shauna of Open Hatch today as to what that could look like.  We decided that perhaps:  some requests from Universities for events could be run by Reps, or on the flip side, Reps would have support of OHCTC for outreach in their region.  Learning opportunities though focused on events, could also be provided online, or  as self-study

Mozilla Reps can run events (very well) and with curriculum designed specifically for on-boarding Mozilla projects we think there’s huge potential. And I’ll stop here to acknowledge all of those people who might be skeptical about growing contributors via learning events like this.  We talked about that as well, more soon on some themes that emerged.

As a side-note, it’s also a goal of mine to help Reps find better ways to work with other open project partners (vrs taking on all aspects of events alone), and so feeling optimistic the win can cover several needs.

For the next little while Shauna and I, mapped out some action items:

I know Open Hatch has additional goals  outside of universities (libraries for example), and to expand beyond the 1-time workshop, which coincidentally aligns with some of the things Webmaker Code Clubs are hoping to do.  I feel this will be a fantastic year for partnering with other open projects like Open Hatch.  Excited for the potential and…will keep you updated.  If you are interested in helping – I’ll provide a bit more info on that soon as well.

Photo credit:   Clay Shonkwilder

 

 

 

 

Scale13x and Mozilla

Scale13x - Southern California Linux ExpoMozilla will be at Southern California Linux Expo (Scale13x) again this year with a booth so be sure to stop by if you live in the area or will be attending. This year the organizers have offered Mozillians a special promo code to get 50% off their registration simply use the code “MOZ” when registering!

9th International Conference on e-Learning 2015

Title: 9th International Conference on e-Learning 2015

Where: Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain

Date: 21 - 24 July 2015

Website: http://www.elearning-conf.org/)

Information: This conference is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (MCCSIS 2015) which will also be held in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain from 21 - 24 July 2015. The website for this Multi Conference is http://www.mccsis.org/.

The e-Learning 2015 conference aims to address the main issues of concern within e-Learning. This conference covers both the technical as well as the non-technical aspects of e-Learning.

The conference accepts submissions in the following seven main areas:

1. Organisational Strategy and Management Issues
2. Technological Issues
3. e-Learning Curriculum Development Issues
4. Instructional Design Issues
5. e-Learning Delivery Issues
6. e-Learning Research Methods and Approaches
7. e-Skills and Information Literacy for Learning

For more details please check http://www.elearning-conf.org/call-for-papers

Je Suis Charlie

Je Suis Charlie - Benjamin Kerensa

If you do not know what Je Suis Charlie means you should read this!

Cara membuat Dan Mendaftar Akun Youtube Google

Cara membuat Dan Mendaftar Akun Youtube  - Situs milik Google ini sampai sekarang semakin ramai saja. ratusan bahkan ribuan video yang terupload di sana. kiranya tidak sia-sia google membeli situs tersebut seharga US$1,65 miliar pada tahun 2006 lalu. situs yang menampung jutaan video ini memberikan kesempatan besar pada orang-orang yang hobbi merekam atau meng create video . jadi jika sobat Punya

Future of LMS

Here is an interesting website on the future of the LMS:

http://www.futureoflms.com

Some of the items that are considered in future LMSs:

Software As A Service (SaaS)
Social Collaboration
Big data tools
Fun learning environment
Open Source Software
Inclusion of new stuff like the Experience API (xAPI)
Mobile applications

I am just not sure whether the next generation LMS will address more of the learning issues or just adding in more new technology!

Google for Education

Google for Education

https://www.google.com/edu/

This is a Google website which contains many educational resources:

1. Free productivity tools - Classroom, Gmail, Docs

2. Class contents like teacher-approved apps, books, and videos

3. Devices - get information on where you can get laptops and tablets that are affordable and easy to manage

4. Get connected with other teachers

One can also get many Youtube resources. Just type "Google for Education" in the search entry and you can find many Youtube videos on this topic.


Perlukah Berhenti Untuk Mengakses Facebook ?

Perlukah Berhenti Untuk Mengakses Facebook - Demam sosial media semakin merajalela rasanya seperti tidak mungkin jika kita tidak memakai aplikasi bahkan dalam satu hari saja. cara mencari teman dan bersosialisasi semakin mudah sehingga mereka semakin asik dalam sebuah lingkaran yang sulit untuk  keluar dari itu semua. facebook adalah salah satu sosial media yang mendominasi sehingga banyak juga

What is your Mozilla Resolution?

Mozilla is David against the Goliath's of the webWe punch way above our weight

Happy new year, friends!

2014 was both a phenomenal year for Mozilla while a wild ride for us as we waded through what seemed like hit after hit from the tech press but we fared well.  We have much to be excited about this year we announced Firefox for iOS, launched a refresh of Firefox’s UI, a Firefox Dev Edition, improved search options and we also launched phones with partners in more countries than I can count on two hands which makes us one of the most successful open source mobile platforms out there.

We also participated in 3000+ events worldwide and that is a pretty amazing feat in itself and I honestly do not know of many open source projects or companies that could come close to that figure. The fact is we had a really awesome year and all of our work is not done some of the things we started in 2014 will continue into 2015 and as exciting as 2014 was for us I’m betting we can do 2015 even bigger.

Remember Mozillians, we punch way above our weight and really are that David fighting Goliath and I think considering we will have a relentless focus on product next year the future for Mozilla is very bright.

Some of the things I look forwarding to working on next year:

 

Imre Lakatos and programming as dialectic

My dissertation is about the role of software in scholarly communication. Specifically, I’m interested in the way software code is itself a kind of scholarly communication, and how the informal communications around software production represent and constitute communities of scientists. I see science as a cognitive task accomplished by the sociotechnical system of science, including both scientists and their infrastructure. Looking particularly at scientist’s use of communications infrastructure such as email, issue trackers, and version control, I hope to study the mechanisms of the scientific process much like a neuroscientist studies the mechanisms of the mind by studying neural architecture and brainwave activity.

To get a grip on this problem I’ve been building BigBang, a tool for collecting data from open source projects and readying it for scientific analysis.

I have also been reading background literature to give my dissertation work theoretical heft and to procrastinate from coding. This is why I have been reading Imre Lakatos’ Proofs and Refutations (1976).

Proofs and Refutations is a brilliantly written book about the history of mathematical proof. In particular, it is an analysis of informal mathematics through an investigation of the letters written by mathematicians working on proofs about the Euler characteristic of polyhedra in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Whereas in the early 20th century, based on the work of Russel and Whitehead and others, formal logic was axiomatized, prior to this mathematical argumentation had less formal grounding. As a result, mathematicians would argue not just substantively about the theorem they were trying to prove or disprove, but also about what constitutes a proof, a conjecture, or a theorem in the first place. Lakatos demonstrates this by condensing 200+ years of scholarly communication into a fictional, impassioned classroom dialog where characters representing mathematicians throughout history banter about polyhedra and proof techniques.

What’s fascinating is how convincingly Lakatos presents the progress of mathematical understanding as an example of dialectical logic. Though he doesn’t use the word “dialectical” as far as I’m aware, he tells the story of the informal logic of pre-Russellian mathematics through dialog. But this dialog is designed to capture the timeless logic behind what’s been said before. It takes the reader through the thought process of mathematical discovery in abbreviated form.

I’ve had conversations with serious historians and ethnographers of science who would object strongly to the idea of a history of a scientific discipline reflecting a “timeless logic”. Historians are apt to think that nothing is timeless. I’m inclined to think that the objectivity of logic persists over time much the same way that it persists over space and between subjects, even illogical ones, hence its power. These are perhaps theological questions.

What I’d like to argue (but am not sure how) is that the process of informal mathematics presented by Lakatos is strikingly similar to that used by software engineers. The process of selecting a conjecture, then of writing a proof (which for Lakatos is a logical argument whether or not it is sound or valid), then having it critiqued with counterexamples, which may either be global (counter to the original conjecture) or local (counter to a lemma), then modifying the proof, then perhaps starting from scratch based on a new insight… all this reads uncannily like the process of debugging source code.

The argument for this correspondence is strengthened by later work in theory of computation and complexity theory. I learned this theory so long ago I forget who to attribute it to, but much of the foundational work in computer science was the establishment of a correspondence between classes of formal logic and classes of programming languages. So in a sense its uncontroversial within computer science to consider programs to be proofs.

As I write I am unsure whether I’m simply restating what’s obvious to computer scientists in an antiquated philosophical language (a danger I feel every time I read a book, lately) or if I’m capturing something that could be an interesting synthesis. But my point is this: that if programming language design and the construction of progressively more powerful software libraries is akin to the expanding of formal mathematical knowledge from axiomatic grounds, then the act of programming itself is much more like the informal mathematics of pre-Russellian mathematics. Specifically, in that it is unaxiomatic and proofs are in play without necessarily being sound. When we use a software system, we are depending necessarily on a system of imperfected proofs that we fix iteratively through discovered counterexamples (bugs).

Is it fair to say, then, that whereas the logic of software is formal, deductive logic, the logic of programming is dialectical logic?

Bear with me; let’s presume it is. That’s a foundational idea of my dissertation work. Proving or disproving it may or may not be out of scope of the dissertation itself, but it’s where it’s ultimately headed.

The question is whether it is possible to develop a formal understanding of dialectical logic through a scientific analysis of the software collaboration. (see a mathematical model of collective creativity). If this could be done, then we could then build better software or protocols to assist this dialectical process.


Cara Membuat Status "Sedang Mendengarkan lagu" Di Facebook

Cara Membuat Status Sedang Mendengarkan lagu Di Facebook - Ada yang menarik mengupdate status text biasa dengan mengshare lagu yang semua teman juga bisa mendengarkannya. Sudah lama facebook menambah fitur tentang aktifitas yang sobat lakukan misalkan sobat bisa menambakan tempat restoran saat sedang makan di restoran tersebut atau sedang mendengarkan lagu terbaru yang sedang populer maupun lagu

#mozlove for Nigel Babu

Two weeks ago some 1000+ Mozillians gathered in Portland for a workweek.  Attendance was, as usual, from all over the world – staff  and volunteers all working really hard, together,  to visualize 2015 – and in the evenings we met at various restaurants all over town to unwind and socialize.  It was on one of these nights at the Deschutes Brewery , I met and was inspired by Nigel Babu and the story of Mozilla Sheriffs.  ‘Sheriffing’ is not just the coolest contributor title – but a truly amazing collaboration of people across the world working to ensure the Firefox & B2G trees build correctly each night.  Across the continent – there is always Sheriff watching.

Nigel made me aware that even for the most impactful contributors – recognition is sometimes rare, or  is limited to specific areas of the project – rarely does that news bubble up.  I would say that most of us don’t turn up expecting recognition – but it is nice to feel appreciated, and valued. I’m imagining a 2015 where recognition is something we all practice.

To that end, I am writing this blog post, an interview to recognize Nigel but also to start a challenge to others in the community – to write about, tweet about – ‘make some noise in some way’ about a community member (staff or volunteer) making impact on Mozilla’s mission, or someone who has inspired you personally.   Tag it with #mozlove , and nominate someone else. I am nominating       to do the same.

Let’s end 2015 with love-stories about community members like Nigel.


Nigel, can you tell me a bit about yourself  ?

I live in Delhi, India (just recently moved from Bangalore) and I work as a Senior Systems Administrator at Open Knowledge. I’ve been an open source contributor for several years, starting by contributing to Ubuntu in 2009. Since then, I’ve been active in the open source world and it’s now part of my day job.

I learned about a very cool contributor title in Mozilla called ‘Sheriff’s’ and that you are one!  Can you tell me more about this role, and what is it that inspired you to contribute?

Every time someone commits code to Firefox or B2G, there’s an array of builds and tests kicked off on various platforms. Sometimes, these tests take hours to run and the developer may not be aware that they broke something. As a sheriff, we watch the trees to ensure that our tests and builds don’t break. The Sheriffs team also helps folks land their patch onto repository if, for whatever reason, they do not want to land it themselves.

The inspiration for contributing to Sheriffs team is entirely incidental. At the summit in Santa Clara last year, I was sitting in the lobby next to Wes Kocher. We started having a conversation and he invited me to his talk later that day. When I attended the talk, I realized I knew Ed Morely from the London office. During the talk, Ed, Ryan, and Wes convinced me I could help. There was a bit of a gap in coverage between Wes in the US West Coast and Carsten, in Germany and I was in a perfect timezone to help.

The team got me the access I need to start marking failures as intermittent and wrote documentation from the conversations and questions I raised. Over the months, I’ve made plenty of mistakes and I’ve also gotten more confidence in fixing issues. There’s been a day when I’ve had to call up Nick Thomas in New Zealand followed by Chris Cooper in Toronto because there was an infrastructure issue needing all trees to be closed.

How long have you been contributing to Mozilla – Is Sheriffing where you started contributing to Mozilla, or was there a journey here?

I’ve been contributing to Mozilla since 2011. I started my contributions by helping with developing input.mozilla.org. The codebase has changed drastically since then and I’ve blogged about my initial story already.

I also learned from our conversation, that Sherriffing takes global cooperation, for timezones – can you tell me a bit more about that?

Sheriffing is handed over from shift to shift throughout the week. I watch the tree in the mornings in my timezone (almost all the time with Phil for company). Around afternoon, Carsten, takes over from me. After him, it’s Ryan’s turn, and finally Wes. After Wes, it’s a mix of Phil and I watching the tree again.

What feels most rewarding about contributing to Mozilla?  I suppose what I’m wondering is – what sustains your involvement – keeps you involved?

Sheriffing has it’s own feedback. Every day as we do backouts and keep the tree green, I know that while it temporarily disrupts work, in the long run, it’s helping developers merge their code into Firefox sooner without issues

 

Thanks for all you do Nigel!

 

 

 

 

 

Give a little

GiveGive by Time Green (CC-BY-SA)

The year is coming to an end and I would encourage you all to consider making a tax-deductible donation (If you live in the U.S.) to one of the following great non-profits:

Mozilla

The Mozilla Foundation is a non-profit organization that promotes openness, innovation and participation on the Internet. We promote the values of an open Internet to the broader world. Mozilla is best known for the Firefox browser, but we advance our mission through other software projects, grants and engagement and education efforts.

EFF

The Electronic Frontier Foundation is the leading nonprofit organization defending civil liberties in the digital world. Founded in 1990, EFF champions user privacy, free expression, and innovation through impact litigation, policy analysis, grassroots activism, and technology development.

ACLU

The ACLU is our nation’s guardian of liberty, working daily in courts, legislatures and communities to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.

Wikimedia Foundation

The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is a nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to encouraging the growth, development and distribution of free, multilingual, educational content, and to providing the full content of these wiki-based projects to the public free of charge. The Wikimedia Foundation operates some of the largest collaboratively edited reference projects in the world, including Wikipedia, a top-ten internet property.

Feeding America

Feeding America is committed to helping people in need, but we can’t do it without you. If you believe that no one should go hungry in America, take the pledge to help solve hunger.

Action Against Hunger

ACF International, a global humanitarian organization committed to ending world hunger, works to save the lives of malnourished children while providing communities with access to safe water and sustainable solutions to hunger.
These six non-profits are just one of many causes to support but these ones specifically are playing a pivotal role in protecting the internet, protecting liberties, educating people around the globe or helping reduce hunger.

Even if you cannot support one of these causes, consider giving this post a share to add visibility to your friends and family and help support these causes in the new year!

 

Macam Aplikasi Android Yang Paling Banyak Di Download di Playstore

Aplikasi android yang banyak di download - Mendengar aplikasi android tentu sobat sudah terbayang betapa banyak jumlahnya berbagai macam dan beragam. namun sobat bisa mengetahui aplikasi apa saja yang banyak diminati. Smartphone dengan sistem operasi Android memang cukup populer bahkan mayoritas pengguna smartphone di seluruh dunia juga memilih memakai smartphone Android. Alasan utama mengapa

Open or Fauxpen? Use the OSS Watch Openness Rating tool to find out

Open  sign with "Sorry We're Closed" sign beneath it

Is your software open or fauxpen?

This is the question that OSS Watch, in partnership with Pia Waugh, developed the Openness Rating to help you find out.

Using a series of questions covering legal issues, governance, standards, knowledge sharing and market access, the tool helps you to identify potential problem areas for users, contributors and partners.

Unlike earlier models designed to evaluate open source projects, this model can also be applied to both open and closed source software products.

We’ve used the Openness Rating internally at OSS Watch for several years as a key part of our consultancy work, but this is the first time we’ve made the app itself open for anyone to use. It requires a fair bit of knowledge to get the most out of it, but even at a basic level its useful for highlighting questions that a project needs to be able to answer.

Get started with the Openness Rating tool.

Photo by Alan Levine used under CC-BY-SA.

Portland needs Uber

Portland, Oregon Uber AppMaybe the Mayor should try Uber!

It has been pretty sad to see the City of Portland continue to blockade Uber from servicing people in Portland, Oregon. It really seems like the City is shielding dinosaur taxi companies that have built a reputation of providing poor service at top dollar. Yep, that’s right. I think taxi service in Portland stinks but I’m not the only one. So do the thousands who live in Portland and better yet the thousands of people who travel here to be a tourist or do business each year.

One of my friends was in town some months back and she grabbed a cab with Broadway Cab back to the airport and the driver was making misogynistic comments the entire way about how women drivers should be taken off the road, but this is just one example. There are lots of others like the one where a cab driver forced a lesbian couple out of the cab on the freeway.

Taxi service in Portland sucks and taxi service in most cities sucks but in Portland the experience hurts for locals and visitors a lot more than other cities. This is why I am a big supporter of services like Uber and Lyft coming to Portland and disrupting the status quo of an industry that does not want to provide its customers a good service at a good price.

You can listen to politicians touting how Uber doesn’t have insurance or how they are not playing by the rules but these are all just excuses. Uber does have good liability insurance and has tried to play by the city’s rules but the city has rules that block Uber and protect the taxi industry.

Now you can listen to Steve Novick posture on this issue more and more but think about it and give Uber a try and I bet you will agree that Uber is a much better service than Broadway Cab, Radio Cab, Sassys Cab or Green Cab can offer. In fact, a coalition of both big business and small business owners in Portland wrote the city council asking them to support Uber.

You can write the City Council too by simply signing this petition

Membuat 27 Status Facebook Tentang Motivasi Islami

Membuat Status facebook yang mengandung kalimat motivasi islami -  Menulis dan berbicara tentang kata-kata baik dan islami tak harus menjadi seorang ustad, menyebarkan kata-kata kebaikan tak harus ada di mimbar-mimbar tertentu karena sobat juga bisa melakukannya di berbagai tempat salah satunya adalah lewat sosial media yang bernama facebook, twitter, google plus, daripada membuat status yang

Mozilla All Hands: They can’t hold us!

Macklemore & Ryan Lewis perform for MozillaMacklemore & Ryan Lewis perform for Mozilla

What a wonderful all hands we had this past week. The entire week was full of meetings and planning and I must say I was exhausted by Thursday having been up each day working by 6:00am and going to bed by midnight.

I’m very happy to report that I made a lot of progress on meeting with more people to discuss the future of Firefox Extended Support Release and how to make it a much better offering to organizations.

I also spent some time talking to folks about Firefox in Ubuntu and rebranding Iceweasel to Firefox in Debian (fingers crossed something will happen here in 2015). Also it was great to participate in discussions around making all of the Firefox channels offer more stability and quality to our users.

It was great to hear that we will be doing some work to bring Firefox to iOS which I think will fill a gap that has existed for our users of OSX who have an iPhone.  Anyways, what I can say about this all hands is that there were lots of opportunities for discussions on quality and the future is looking very bright.

Also a big thanks to Lukas Blakk who put together an early morning excursion to Sherwood Ice Arena where Mozillians played some matches of hockey which I took photos of here.

In closing, I have to say it was a great treat for Macklemore & Ryan Lewis to come and perform for us in a private show and help us celebrate Mozilla.

 

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