Teaching Open Source Planet is a Planet, a collection of personal blogs by Teaching Open Source community members working to bring the open source way into academia. We write about our inspirations and experiences in learning, teaching, and collaborating within free and open communities. In the spirit of freedom, we share and criticize in order to collectively improve. We hope you enjoy reading our thoughts; if you’re fascinated by what you see, consider adding your voice to the conversation.
Two years ago I proposed a Webmaker Club at my daughter’s school, and it was turned down in an email:
Because it involves students putting (possibly) personal info/images on-line we are not able to do the club at this time. They did say that they may have to reconsider in the future because more and more of life is happening on-line.
One year later, and because our principle is amazing, and sponsored it – I had a ‘lunch time’ Webmaker Club at my daughter’s elementary school (grades 4 & 5) . It was great fun, I learned a lot as always thanks to challenges : handling the diversity of attendance, interests and limited time. I never get tired of helping kids ‘make the thing they are imagining’.
This year, I was excited to be invited to lead a Webmaker ‘Exploratory’ in our town’s middle school (grades 6-8). Exciting on so many levels, but two primarily
1) Teachers and schools are recognizing the need for web literacy (and its absence), and that it should be offered as part of primary education.
2) Schools are putting faith in community partnerships to teach. At least this is what it feels like to me – pairing a technically-strong teacher, with a community expert in coding/web (whatever) is a winning situation.
I wrote specific instructions for each week that we tracked on a wiki, we used Creative Commons Image Search and talked about our digital footprint.
Having an ‘example make’ of the milestone for this class where each week kids could see, in advance what they were making.
Having a ‘starting template‘ for the lesson helped those kids who missed a class, catch up quickly.
Being flexible about that template, meant those kids who preferred to work on their own single ‘make’ could still challenge themselves a bit more.
Baked-In Web Literacy CC image search brought up conversations about ownership, sharing on the web and using a Wiki led to discussion about how Wikimedia editing and editors build content; about participating in open communities.
Sending my teacher-helper the curriculum a few days before, so she could prepare as a mentor.
Having some ‘other activities’ in my back pocket for kids who got bored, or finished early. These were just things like check out this ‘hour of code tutorial’.
What didn’t work
We were sharing a space with the ‘year book’ team, who also used the internet, and sometimes our internet was moving slower than a West Coast Banana Slug. In our class ‘X Ray Goggles’ challenge, kids sat for long periods of time before being able to do much. Some also had challenges saving/publishing their X Ray Goggles Make.
Week 2, To get around slow internet – I brought everyone USB sticks and taught them to work locally – this also was a bit of a fail, as I realized many in the group didn’t know simple terms like ‘directory and folder’. I made a wrong assumption they had this basic knowledge. Also I should have collected USB sticks after class, because most lost or damaged in the care of students. We went back to slow internet – although, it was never as bad as that first day.
Having only myself and one teacher with that many kids meant we were running between kids. Also slightly unfair to the teacher who was learning along with the group. It also sometimes meant kids waited too long for help.
Not all kids liked the game we were making
So overall I think it went well, we had some wonderful kids, I was proud of all of them. The final outcome/learning, the sponsoring teacher, and I realized was that many of the lessons (coding, wikipedia, CC) could easily fit into any class project – rather than having Webmaking as it’s ‘own class’.
So in future, that may be the next way I participate: as someone who comes into say – a social studies class, or history class and helps students put together a project on the web. Perhaps that’s how community can offer their help to teachers in schools, as a way to limit large commitments like running an entire program, but to have longer-lasting and embedding impact in schools.
For the remainder of the year, and next – my goal seems to be as a ‘Webmaker Plugin’ , helping integrate web literacy into existing class projects :)
SageMath (http://sagemath.org/) is a Free Open Source Software that is quickly gaining popularity in many areas of Mathematics. It has a very easy to learn Python-like syntax and gives you access to many open source packages such as: NumPy, SciPy, R, and other. One can freely download and use SageMath from their own computer, or can choose to use it over the Cloud (SageCell and SageCloud are two great options for this).
The great side about SageMath is that this one tool can be used for various Mathematics courses, for both Graduate and Undergraduate students. It can be used
as a rich Computer Algebra System (for College Algebra, Calculus, Abstract Algebra, Number Theory, etc)
one can easily plot functions, compute derivatives, antiderivative, and definite integrals, etc
for example, one can go to SageCell and try each of the following sample Sage code:
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Hirschman says he got the idea for Exit, Voice, and Loyalty when studying the failure of the Nigerian railroad system to improve quality despite the availability of trucking as a substitute for long-range shipping. Conventional wisdom among economists at the time was that the quality of a good would suffer when it was provisioned by a monopoly. But why would a business that faced healthy competition not undergo the management changes needed to improve quality?
Hirschman’s answer is that because the trucking option was so readily available as an alternative, there wasn’t a need for consumers to develop their capacity for voice. The railroads weren’t hearing the complaints about their service, they were just seeing a decline in use as their customers exited. Meanwhile, because it was a monopoly, loss in revenue wasn’t “of utmost gravity” to the railway managers either.
The upshot of this is that it’s only when customers are locked in that voice plays a critical role in the recuperation mechanism.
This is interesting for me because I’m interested in the role of lock-in in software development. In particular, one argument made in favor of open source software is that because it is not technology held by a single firm, users of the software are not locked-in. Their switching costs are reduced, making the market more liquid and, in theory favorable.
You can contrast this with proprietary enterprise software, where vendor lock-in is a principle part of the business model as this establishes the “installed base” and customer support armies are necessary for managing disgruntled customer voice. Or, in the case of social media such as Facebook, network effects create a kind of perceived consumer lock-in and consumer voice gets articulated by everybody from Twitter activists to journalists to high-profile academics.
As much as it pains me to admit it, this is one good explanation for why the user interfaces of a lot of open source software projects are so bad specifically if you combine this mechanism with the idea that user-centered design is important for user interfaces. Open source projects generally make it easy to complain about the software. If they know what they are doing at all, they make it clear how to engage the developers as a user. There is a kind of rumor out there that open source developers are unfriendly towards users and this is perhaps true when users are used to the kind of customer support that’s available on a product for which there is customer lock-in. It’s precisely this difference between exit culture and voice culture, driven by the fundamental economics of the industry, that creates this perception. Enterprise open source business models (I’m thinking about models like the Pentaho ‘beekeeper’) theoretically provide a corrective to this by being an intermediary between consumer voice and developer exit.
A testable hypothesis is whether and to what extent a software project’s responsiveness to tickets scales with the number of downstream dependent projects. In software development, technical architecture is a reasonable proxy for industrial organization. A widely used project has network effects that increasing switching costs for its downstream users. How do exit and voice work in this context?
For Classics we are reading Albert Hirschman’s Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Oddly, though normally I hear about ‘voice’ as an action from within an organization, the first few chapters of the book (including the introduction of the Voice concept itselt), are preoccupied with elaborations on the neoclassical market mechanism. Not what I expected.
I’m looking for interesting research use cases for BigBang, which is about analyzing the sociotechnical dynamics of collaboration. I’m building it to better understand open source software development communities, primarily. This is because I want to create a harmonious sociotechnical superintelligence to take over the world.
For a while I’ve been interested in Hadoop’s interesting case of being one software project with two companies working together to build it. This is reminiscent (for me) of when we started GeoExt at OpenGeo and Camp2Camp. The economics of shared capital are fascinating and there are interesting questions about how human resources get organized in that sort of situation. In my experience, there becomes a tension between the needs of firms to differentiate their products and make good on their contracts and the needs of the developer community whose collective value is ultimately tied to the robustness of their technology.
Unfortunately, building out BigBang to integrate with various email, version control, and issue tracking backends is a lot of work and there’s only one of me right now to both build the infrastructure, do the research, and train new collaborators (who are starting to do some awesome work, so this is paying off.) While integrating with Apache’s infrastructure would have been a smart first move, instead I chose to focus on Mailman archives and git repositories. Google Groups and whatever Apache is using for their email lists do not publish their archives in .mbox format, which is pain for me. But luckily Google Takeout does export data from folks’ on-line inbox in .mbox format. This is great for BigBang because it means we can investigate email data from any project for which we know an insider willing to share their records.
Does a research ethics issue arise when you start working with email that is openly archived in a difficult format, then exported from somebody’s private email? Technically you get header information that wasn’t open before–perhaps it was ‘private’. But arguably this header information isn’t personal information. I think I’m still in the clear. Plus, IRB will be irrelevent when the robots take over.
All of this is a long way of getting around to talking about a new thing I’m wondering about, the Node.js fork. It’s interesting to think about open source software forks in light of Hirschman’s concepts of Exit and Voice since so much of the activity of open source development is open, virtual communication. While you might at first think a software fork is definitely a kind of Exit, it sounds like IO.js was perhaps a friendly fork of just somebody who wanted to hack around. In theory, code can be shared between forks–in fact this was the principle that GitHub’s forking system was founded on. So there are open questions (to me, who isn’t involved in the Node.js community at all and is just now beginning to wonder about it) along the lines of to what extent a fork is a real event in the history of the project, vs. to what extent it’s mythological, vs. to what extent it’s a reification of something that was already implicit in the project’s sociotechnical structure. There are probably other great questions here as well.
A friend on the inside tells me all the action on this happened (is happening?) on the GitHub issue tracker, which is definitely data we want to get BigBang connected with. Blissfully, there appear to be well supported Python libraries for working with the GitHub API. I expect the first big hurdle we hit here will be rate limiting.
Though we haven’t been able to make integration work yet, I’m still hoping there’s some way we can work with MetricsGrimoire. They’ve been a super inviting community so far. But our software stacks and architecture are just different enough, and the layers we’ve built so far thin enough, that it’s hard to see how to do the merge. A major difference is that while MetricsGrimoire tools are built to provide application interfaces around a MySQL data backend, since BigBang is foremost about scientific analysis our whole data pipeline is built to get things into Pandas dataframes. Both projects are in Python. This too is a weird microcosm of the larger sociotechnical ecosystem of software production, of which the “open” side is only one (important) part.
This is a guest post from the OpenScholar team at Gizra. A lot of public sector organisations have moved recently to an open source CMS solution, citing the benefits not just in cost but also in flexibility, and its great to see examples of universities following suit. If your university has a similar experience, tell us about it in the comments!
As in many fields, the introduction of the web into higher education took place gradually and unevenly. This led many academic staff, projects and even whole departments to build their own Web presence independent from each other, using their personal or department budgets to hire external help and grad students to create their websites.
Naturally, this led fairly quickly to the Ivory Tower looking more like the Tower of Babel in terms of web presence, when universities found out they have scores of sites running on various incompatible environments, increasingly difficult to maintain, update or apply security patches – a situation that is still bogging down many academic IT departments.
Many institutions are attempting to fix this by standardizing on a single CMS system, often an Open Source one. When Harvard University faced the problem, it decided to take it one step further and create a CMS focused on academic use.
As a basis, it picked Drupal, one of the most widely used Open Source CMS solutions, powering civic and commercial websites such as WhiteHouse.gov, The Economist, Twitter’s developer website and many others, which already had a strong academic presence. Harvard used Drupal as the base for its own distribution named OpenScholar, which essentially bundles specific backend modules (e.g. bibliography handling) along with a user interface tailored for users in academia.
As the project progressed, we at Gizra were called in for a short consulting gig based on our experience releasing the Organic Groups module for Drupal, which then morphed into a 3 year engagement, at its peak employing four full time developers on our end and an equal number on Harvard’s.
The result is a system that aims to solve both the content creator and IT admin woes. Academic staff are provided with an intuitive UI for smooth website creation. Templates already incorporate the common (and some less common) elements used in such sites: For example, a professor can sign in and have a basic template created. She can then choose to have a calendar on the right sidebar, a blog in the middle, a bibliography page linked on the footer etc – all with an easy to use drag & drop interface.
For the IT side, this helps reduce the amount of user support required, but more critically the system also provide a single, unified codebase upon which all the institution websites are built. Upgrading to a new version or applying a security patch is done in one place, as opposed to keeping dozens of different environments up to date.
OpenScholar now runs all of Harvard University’s websites – 5120 at time of writing – and is starting to be used at Princeton, Berkeley, Virginia Tech and others. Drupal’s excellent multilingual support is helping it spread worldwide, and we’ve recently helped the Hebrew University in Jerusalem add support for right-to-left text, enabling easy creation and management of websites in Hebrew, Farsi, Arabic and other languages.
Leading Drupal cloud hosting providers Acquia and Pantheon now offer a turnkey solution for easily setting up highly optimized, elastic OpenScholar environments without the need for local installation and maintenance at all. For organizations wishing to keep their servers on-site, we’re collaborating with Zend Technologies on a packaged solution that will allow installing a complete secure and optimized OpenScholar environment locally from scratch.
Following the success at Harvard, OpenScholar continues to develop its core as well as adding more UI elements per professor and department’s demands. An RESTful API is now being developed which will allow easier integration with existing systems as well a smoother and more sophisticated front end.
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Learning analytics is one of the holy grails of today’s eLearning industry. It is a part of the Internet mainstream called big-data and Tin Can API or xAPI, as a relatively new technical standard, is introducing this mainstream to online learning. With this article the author will share some thoughts on how microlearning and Tin Can API might be the key factors of the future learning.
This board is powered by an 8-core, 64-bit Cortex-A53ARMv8-A Kirin 620 SOC from HiSilicon with 1GB of LPDDR3 RAM, a Mali 450MP4 GPU, dual USB, eMMC and micro-SD storage, 802.11g/n, and high- and low-speed expansion connectors with I2C, SPI, DSI, GPIO, and USB interfaces.
So far, this has been an incredible board to work with, despite some teething pains with the pre-release/early access software and documentation (and a few minor quibbles with the design decisions behind the 96Boards Consumer Edition spec and this first board). It's not in the same performance class as the ARMv8 server systems that we have in the EHL at Seneca, but it's a very impressive board for doing ARMv8 porting and optimization work -- which is its intended purpose, along with providing a great board for hacker and maker communities.
I experimented with the board last week and took some readings at home today, and thought I'd share some of my findings on board current draw and temperatures, because it may be useful to those planning alternate power supplies and considering temperatures and airflows for cases:
Current consumption: The board draws ~120 mA at idle (Linux login prompt) with nothing connected, and about 150-155 mA with a basic USB fast ethernet adapter connected. With ethernet attached and 8 cores doing busy-work (compressing /dev/urandom to /dev/null), current consumption rises to just over 300 mA (297-320). All of these readings are at 12+/-0.25 vdc, so that's under 4W including the USB ethernet. Note that the GPU was basically idle during these tests.
Temperature: In a room with an ambient temperature of ~21C, with all 8 cores doing busy work (8 processes gzipping /dev/urandom to /dev/null, and top reporting 0.0% idle), the temperature on the SOC heatsink rose fairly quickly to ~48C, and eventually reached 52C, measured using an infrared temperature reader (accuracy of +/- <2C).
A couple of other random observations about the board:
The board mounting holes accommodate M2.5 screws. Basic hardware stores, including Home Depot (at least in Canada), do not carry M2.5 screws, so I've been thwarted in my efforts to mount this onto an acrylic plate so far (cases will evetually follow, I'm sure, but I always prefer to have boards on/in something and not sitting directly on my desk). I'm sticking some silicon feet on the bottom as an interim measure.
There is a "USERDATA" partition on the eMMC which is not used by the initial software image. Be sure to format and mount that partition to gain an additional 1.5 GB of space if you're running from eMMC.
I'm looking forward to the release of WiFi drivers and UEFI bootloader support soon, as promised by the 96Boards project.
Kindness is the language which the deaf can hear and the blind can see.
I’ve had this post swirling around in my head for a while. A post on my experiences and preference to lead, participate and negotiate conflict in online communities through kindness.
I might be writing it as a proposal to others, but also it might be a bit of therapy to review this strategy for myself.
Kindness is the tone you set for yourself
When we consider approaching community conversation with kindness and patience; when we squash that immediate need to react we’re setting a tone of kindness . It is not, as you might assume, solely for the benefit of others. I believe much more that kindness is a selfish act, siding with optimism for the community conversations guides outcomes far more meaningful than ‘being right’, or getting the most of what you came for.
Regret is harder to overcome, than leading with kindness will ever be.
Measure Twice, Respond Once
If a conversation topic or introduction starts off in a way that makes you feel defensive. Stop. Read it again. I know it’s hard, but looking past negative words – to find the truth in a conversation often makes the difference to everyone involved. Negativity could be as a result of events of the past, misconception and defensiveness. It might have nothing to do with you at all, and so digging out the root of the conversation and focusing there, can bring sunshine. I actually skim negative, and unprovoked comments altogether as a kindness to myself.
Every personality exists in community. With the invitation of ‘open’ – the simple act of getting shit done can come laced with barbs of protest, and challenge. Even when it’s clear that intentions may not be positive, reaching out with a benefit of the doubt can often turn that around. I have found new allies this way.
Sometimes people just want to know they’re being heard.
Have a Point
If you are reaching out with a concern, complaint or comment have a clear point. A discombobulation of emotion mixed in with accusations and assumptions will get you nowhere near the solution you’re seeking. Instead of writing long posts/emails/forums with an assumption you’ll get push-back – dare to assume people will respond with a desire to help! Narrow your point into an ‘ask’, that welcomes feedback.
Make sure your point isn’t simply to ‘be proven correct’, or to expose what little someone else knows. There are better things to do in the world.
You could be wrong. Learning is often a humbling experience (if you’ve ever watched a babys first steps), but learning and growing is a gift. Don’t close the door to being wrong.
Check your Ego
If being right is a goal for your communication – then that’s a debate, and those can be good fun when both people sign-up.
However spending time providing the community with your credentials as a way to influence opinion, does far less than the act of listening, acknowledging the points of others, and specifically calling out feedback that helps you. Learn about others, there are some very brilliant, experienced yet quiet people lurking in our community – you may not realize the depth of someone else’s knowledge without making room for it.
Consider entering discussions with the goal of having your mind changed!
Ending with Kindness
By starting kindness with you, you can more easily recognize when your participation becomes of risk to yourself. Giving people he benefit of the doubt, being open to correction, extending help – whatever kindness matters, does not mean taking people’s crap. It doesn’t mean accepting abusive behavior or bulling. At. All. By staying true to the good person you are, bad behavior of others is much more obvious. You need to do less talking in general.
I’ll end by saying that I don’t think I have all of this covered – I’ve found this approach to work, well often. But I forget too, I get caught up in negativity, defensiveness and justice – but ‘what negativity feels like’ only confirms, and brings me back to what I feel is this more centered, and healthy approach.
I would be interested in other day-to-date strategies for keeping communities, discussion and outcomes positive.
One thing I have tried to advocate for no matter what project it is I’m contributing to is good process and transparency. You would think that things like good process and transparency come naturally to open source projects but the thing is, no matter how old or new the project is there are always people coming and going who have varying depths of experience in doing work in the open and as a result open is not always the default in open source projects.
Most recently, I have been pushing for more transparency in some programs at Mozilla and specifically in the area that deals with community and not product. You might have thought that teams doing work around community at Mozilla are already operating transparently while the reality is in practice open is hard.
One thing I am trying to convince folks though is that working in the open is not so hard that we ignore the principles of working in the open and avoid trying to build a good foundation of open processes. One thing I am finding when I have these discussions though is people do not always feel empowered to speak out about working in the open. Simply put teams and organizations will get in these status quos where they put off this hard work and nobody really comes around often to challenge the status quo because often the debates that pursue of working in the open are filled with disagreement.
Have you ever been outspoken in a open source project about working in the open?
I would love to hear your thoughts in the comments and this will probably be a series of blog posts I write over the coming months on working in the open.
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This is a guest post from Jim Farmer, Chairman of Instructional Media + Magic Inc. Jim has also written a series of feature articles on open source for Informa’s London-based Intellectual Property Magazine.
Higher education has traditionally been a knowledge “sharing” environment. Early software was exchanged without license and, in practice, without restrictions. As the monetization of intellectual property, including software, becomes pervasive more restrictive software licenses have been introduced and enforced. These licenses impose legal duties of the user of “open source software” that could be unexpected and have undesirable consequences.
The first license restrictions were a series of “copyleft” licenses that imposed a duty of a user who makes modifications of open source software to share these modifications with others. In addition, the terms and conditions of licenses of the modified software is required for all subsequent users as well. Richard Stallman is credited with launching the free software movement. He used software licensing to enforce this desired behaviour. In practice the open source community was already sharing software so the “copyleft” licenses were not a substantial burden. Disputes were avoided by an email or telephone request, almost always honoured.
Some open source software from higher education because commercial software products with proprietary licenses. Examples include North Carolina State University’s statistical package that led to SAS, and the University of Chicago’s package that led to SPSS. Their contribution was documentation and standardized stable versions of the software. Subsequently this strategy was used by Red Hat to introduce Red Hat Linux.
Extending Stallman’s practice of imposing duty, the recent and rarely used Affero license has imposed additional and potentially burdensome restrictions on distribution of modifications made to software used as a service over a network.
Higher education is becoming more sensitive to these license restrictions. There are three recent licensing choices that illustrate the trade-off decisions that were made.
edX Seeks More Software Users
Harvard University and MIT had adopted the Affero software license for their edX learning technology platform. In September, Ned Batchelder, edX Sofrtware Architect wrote “…one license does not fit all purposes, which is why we’ve decided to relicense one part, our XBlock API, under Apache 2.0.”
As part of its license compliance software and services, Black Duck compiles use of the various licenses. Using this data the edX shift from restrictive to permissive licensing is illustrated in Figure 1. The data suggests edX’s action was consistent with trends in open source licensing.
Figure 1 – Use of Open Source Software Licenses
Batchelder describes the motivation for the change:
The XBlock API will only succeed to the extent that it is widely adopted, and we are committed to encouraging broad adoption by anyone interested in using it. For that reason, we’re changing the license on the XBlock API from AGPL to Apache 2.0.
The Apache license is permissive: it lets adopters and extenders do what they want with their changes. They can release them under a copyleft license like AGPL, or a permissive license like Apache, or even keep them closed-source.
Using Black Duck data for 2009 and 2015, the licensing trends in Figure 2 show the sharp increases in use of the MIT and Apache permissive licenses.
Figure 2 – Change in Use 2009 to 2015
According to Black Duck’s data on the use of software licenses, Apache 2.0 – used by 19% – has moved from its 7th ranking to 3rd most used software license. The GNU General Public License is still the most frequently used at 25%. However the GPL license has lost 21.4% of user share since 2009 and Apache has gained 12.4%. The least restrictive MIT license grew from 3.3% to 19.0% during the same period to become the second most frequently used open source software license.
The least restrictive MIT license has few restrictions: You can not sue MIT that the software didn’t do what you thought it should—“fitness of purpose.” Also it mandates attribution via reproduction of the copyright statement.
There is also a difference based on the purpose of the license. Figure 3 shows the differences in use by software developers of open source software, on downloads of the software selected for use, and what companies are using. For enterprise use the Apache license is most used.
Figure 3 – License Use by Purpose
Figure 4 – Shift of Open Source Software to Permissive Licensing.
In December 2014 ZDNet’s Steven J Vaughan-Nicholas summarized::
“The three primary permissive license choices (Apache/BSD/MIT) … collectively are employed by 42 percent. They represent, in fact, three of the five most popular licenses in use today.” These permissive licenses have been gaining ground at GPL’s expense. The two biggest gainers, the Apache and MIT licenses, were up 27 percent, while the GPLv2, Linux’s license, has declined by 24 percent.
Yes, without any license, your code defaults to falling under copyright law. In that case, legally speaking no one can reproduce, distribute, or create derivative works from your work. You may or may not want that. In any case, that’s only the theory. In practice you’d find defending your rights to be difficult.
The primary edX learning system continues to use the Affero license. Apereo Foundation’s Sakai learning system is licensed under Apache; Moodle uses the GPL license.
edX’s move to a less restrictive license will likely increase use. To gain additional users, perhaps the Apache license should be used for the edX learning system as well.
Kuali Foundation Seeks to Protect Cloud User Market
Administrative software being developed by the participants in the Kuali Foundation was licensed under the Educational Community License (ECL)—an OSI (Open Source Initiative) approved special purpose license for higher education software based o the Apache license. In August the Kuali Foundation Chair Brad Wheeler announced “… the Kuali Foundation is creating a Professional Open Source commercial entity.” He also said “Kuali software now and in the future will remain open source and available for download and local implementations.” The same day the Kuali Foundation posted Brad Wheeler’s blog Kuali 2.0 FAQs. He wrote “The current plan is for the Kuali codebase to be forked and re-licensed under Affero General public License (AGPL). AGPL allows customers to download and use the code at will, but requires partners trying to monetize the software to contribute code changes back to Kuali. This is intended to discourage partners/Kuali Commercial Affiliates (KCAs) from receiving revenue from hosting Kuali software, but does not prohibit them.”
The Foundation asked its participants to transfer their software development to Kuali Inc.and use their proposed cloud-based systems. The Kuali Foundation continues to make available the current version of its software under ECL. The cloud versions also include software proprietary to Kuali Inc.
… the successful use of AGPL3 to found and fund “open source” companies that can protect their intellectual property and force vendor lock-in *is* the “change” that has happened in [Kuali’s] past decade that underlies both of these announcements and the makes a pivot away from open source and to professional open source an investment with the potential for high returns to its shareholders.
Severance suggested how to achieve “high returns:”
First take VC [venture capitalists] money and develop some new piece of software. Divide the software into two parts – (a) the part that looks nice but is missing major functionality and (b) the super-awesome add-ons to that software that really rock. You license (a) using the AGPL3 and license (b) as all rights reserved and never release that source code.
You then stand up a cloud instance of the software that combines (a) and (b) and not allow any self-hosted versions of the software which might entail handing your (b) source code to your customers.
The back-and-forth involved trying to get a clear answer, and the answer is that the multi-tenant framework to be developed / owned by KualiCo will not be open source – it will be proprietary code. I asked Joel Dehlin for additional context after the session, and he explained that all Kuali functionality will be open source, but the infrastructure to allow cloud hosting is not open source.
“I’ll be very blunt here,” [Kuali’s Barry] Walsh said. “It’s a commercial protection — that’s all it is.”
In a 10 September blog post Locked into Free Software? Unpicking Kuali’s AGPL StrategyOSS Watch’s Scott Wilson considered the implications of AGPL. He pointed out “The GPL license requires any modifications of code it covers to also be GPL if distributed [emphasis added]. The use of a cloud-based service is not considered distribution of code. So a user could offer a cloud service without making modifications available to the community. Wilson wrote:
The AGPL license, on the other hand, treats deployment of websites and services as “distribution”, and compels [his emphasis] anyone using the software to run a service to also distribute the modified source code.
Wilson also reported Bradley Kuhn, one of the original authors of AGPL, in a talk at Open World Forum in 2012 said “… at that time, some of the most popular uses of AGPL were effectively “shakedown practices” (in his words). This unfortunate characterization may rarely be true.
The AGPL license does meet the Open Source Initiative’s criteria of an open source license. But the pressures of monetization causes its terms to be used inconsistent with the connotation of “open source.”
Oracle Builds a Community?
On September 29th at Oracle World, Oracle announced their Oracle Student Cloud and their investment in the Oracle Customer Strategic Design Program. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, University of Texas System and the University of Wisconsin-Madison will participate “to provide guidance and domain expertise that will help shape the design and development of Oracle Student Cloud. A press release described the initiative:
Each university will work with Oracle through significant milestones and releases, providing guidance and expertise to develop an industry-leading product. The growth of non-traditional programs is an important trend for these customers, and the first release of Oracle Student Cloud is expected to include flexible core structures and an extensible architecture to manage a variety of traditional and non-traditional educational offerings.
Oracle Student Cloud will feature a compelling mobile user interface that enables customers to extend, brand, and differentiate the student experience for each institution.
The first phase of Oracle Student Cloud is designed to support the core capabilities of enrolment, payment, and assessment. Oracle Student Cloud will embed CRM-based functionality throughout the solution to promote engagement and collaboration, along with a business intelligence foundation to provide customers with actionable insight into their student operations.
The Design Program could be interpreted as combining the contributions of a community as found in open source development, and a proprietary model that would use the standard Oracle license. If successful this innovation could benefit both Oracle and colleges and universities.
In an October 7 blog Cole Clark, Global Vice President Education and Research industry, reflected on Oracle World. He included Stanford University as a participant. He also said a fifth partner in Europe would be named the following week at the Utrecht NL Higher Education User Group meeting.
We believe this [Oracle Customer Strategic Design Program] gives us a broad spectrum of the higher ed panoply from which to draw a great deal of insight and council [counsel] as we build the next generation student system in the cloud with mobile and social attributes at the core of the development initiative.
He also described the role of open source software:
Don’t get me wrong; there are definitely areas where Kuali (and other open source initiatives) fill gaps that the private sector will likely never pursue – Coeus [research administration] and the open library environment are excellent examples. Parts of Unizen may be another. But in the broader areas … where ample (and growing) competition exists to drive innovation up and costs down, there is no justification for investing shrinking resources in higher education on software development and support.
The description of contribution expected of the participants—guidance and domain expertise—and their diverse needs and competencies suggest functional requirements and designs of student services that improve the Oracle software. The reference to the growth of non-traditional programs demonstrated sensitivity to unfilled needs of current student systems. If these are incorporated into the Oracle product, it would benefit their college and university customers. And perhaps be available earlier than other alternatives.
Incorporating customer feedback on products is becoming a standard industry practice for consumer goods. If broadly implemented Clark’s innovation could change the relationship between higher education and software suppliers.
There is one concern. Oracle declined to answer the question whether the participants would be required to sign non-disclosure agreements. It they are, many of the benefits of the broad open communications found in open source development projects may be lost.
The data on the shift from restrictive to permissive licensing suggests, but does not confirm, broader participation and use of software using permissive licenses. edX may want to consider relicensing the learning platform itself using an Apache license to attract more users of its software
Kuali Inc.’s experience introducing the Aferro license demonstrates how restrictions can be perceived based, in part, on the intent of the copyright holder. The many yet-undefined terms that could be a “cause of action” enabling a copyright holder to bring a legal action against a user presents risks that advice of a licensing specialist or an intellectual property attorney may be needed to fully understand.
Oracle Higher Education may benefit colleges and universities by introducing broad collaboration similar to open source communities. That should be encouraged. But implementation may be fragile in the sense participants, users, and prospects are likely sceptical of success. Complete transparency and open communication about the work of the Strategic Design Program may make the true purpose better known and results more widely used.
The emergence of “intellectual property”—software licenses in these cases—has created monetary incentives for copyright holders. Assessment of licensing restrictions and risks should now be incorporated into all information technology decisions.
“Volunteers who understand Mozilla’s top-level goals feel they have a bigger impact with their contributions”.
– David Eaves Contributor Survey of Mozilla Community
The Mozilla Reps program will be initiating specialized groups for participation. It might sound a lot like a previous Reps initiative: Special Interest Groups (SIG), and on the surface that’s understandable – but here’s how they will be different: these groups will be focused on targeted delivery of functional area goals. Education & curriculum lending to this success will be curated in partnership with product teams, and their goals. We can’t seem to pick a name for these groups – suggestions?
These will be leadership groups, modeled similarly to the Reps program itself, with a mentorship structure to scale. Because, this too is a launchpad, group participation needs to expand well beyond reps to be successful.
We talked a lot about Pilots in Portland, but we’re just as likely to call these ‘experiments’ because we’re still learning what works. Right now Pilots are simply time-bound initiatives initiated by request of functional areas, and executed by their Functional Group. Education & Curriculum will mobilize teams to have the impact product teams need. Curriculum in many cases will need to be localized ( so if you are interested in localizing learning content, please let me know!)
In the last month, I’ve spoken with many leaders of Education at Mozilla – amazing people like Laura Hilliger, Janet Swisher, Diane Tate and Hoosteeno (you should read this post on Learning Experiments on MDN), all expertly working in this space of curating and delivering content; their teams already successful at pushing product success through the opportunity of education.
What I’m recognizing is that Community Education can also connect virtuous circle between our teams, with community and with external organizations like Open Hatch. For functional area initiatives and pilots, we can leverage some of the great work of MDN with ‘Topic in a Box‘, with Webmaker we can perhaps connect and centralize efforts building content for P2PU ‘Course in a Box‘ (and beyond). With amazing Reps and contributors like Michaela Brown, and MDN learning resources, it’s actually realistic to think we can scale Open Hatch + Mozilla events at Universities. And that’s before I even get to benefits of sharing brain-power, ideas, experience – enthusiasm. So yes, I’m super excited at the potential and hope you are too.
Tomorrow: Community Education Survey, Recognition That Matters
This Thursday, launching during the Reps call, council will be doing a 24h
AMA. They’ll be using Discourse, so you only need your Persona account, no
need to sign up to Reddit to post. You won’t need to log in to read the AMA.
For those of you that haven’t done an AMA before, AMA stands for “Ask Me Anything.“, made popular by the SubReddit. It’s a way to get to know someone, usually a way to find out
what it’s like to have a certain job. The AMA is your chance to get to know
the individual council members as people, and also to understand what it’s
like to actually be on council. Silly questions are ok, if you’ve always
wanted to know what Emma’s favorite colour is, now’s your chance to ask!
Remember to be respectful though, don’t ask something that will probably
make someone uncomfortable.
They’ll be keeping track of suggestions and discussions that should be
continued outside of the AMA so that they aren’t lost when the event is
over. Debates over problems with the program or changes to how it should be
run will need more than 24 hours and deserve to be highlighted properly.
To ask a new question you should start a new topic. Discourse admins will
be on-hand to help split out sub-conversations into new threads.
If you want to ask all of council a question, you can address them by
typing @repscouncil – Discourse editor will substitute this text with their
individual usernames. You can also use @ to address a single council
member, @emma_irwin will notify Emma that you’re addressing her
I don’t believe the entire council will be available at once, but we should
have at least 1 council member available at any time over the full 24h to
make sure responses come quickly.
Last year, to research some theories I had about empowering community, I polled numerous open source communities about their experiences as contributors. Some key responses to “why do you contribute” were:
To learn more about a specific technology or project
To grow and develop existing skills
For challenge and feedback from respected peers.
Opportunity to mentor, or be mentored
To better learn and understand the philosophy of Open
To improve my resume.
The majority of responses identified learning opportunities and mentoring as a key motivators for participation, and (perhaps even more importantly) continued participation. So while, yes, the impact and potential impact of the project is often the vessel we arrive on – that alone appears unlikely to sustain contribution. And that’s why I’m so excited that Community Education, and mentorship are core to mobilizing participation goals for 2015.
” At the core of the plan is the assumption that we need to build a virtuous circle between 1) participation that helps our products and programs succeed and2) people getting value from participating in Mozilla. ”
I see education as a key connector of value for people and product. For me it’s less like a hypothesis and more like an opportunity to grow what I have, myself, experienced as a contributor and mentor: that community education and opportunity to learn builds a tenacity and dedication to give back. Being effective matters to product and person.
” Contributors who received code reviews within 48 hours on their first bug have an exceptionally high rate of returning and contributing.” -David Eaves survey of Mozilla contributors.
Educational opportunity is also a ‘people-connector’ : opportunity to give and receive feedback from humans; to know what to what is expected of you, and what you can expect from others lends traction and speed.
Thanks to yet another survey, we have a clear idea idea about what people want to learn, how they want to learn, and some idea of ‘recognition that matters’ looks like. Most significantly, we have a very successful, strong volunteer leadership platform in the Mozilla Reps, and real examples of community education pushing product success like Mozilla Webmaker and MDN. Remo will be the launchpad for Community Education, and we’ve already started building an education platform, and a base curriculum for mentors.
The visual of Reps as a launchpad is really important. It reflects the experience, dedication and power of our community leadership program, our commitment to working collaboratively across the project, and that we intend to pick up speed.
The virtuous circle of participation needs to be visible from space.
Tomorrow: Functional Area Groups, Pilots/Experiments and Recognition That Matters.
I’m already looking forward to attending the 2015 Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, October 12-14, 2015. In Houston no less! Stormy Peters and I are co-chairing an Open Source track and we’re really excited to hear about the new things happening in the open source world. I encourage all of my open source friends and colleagues to submit to the track. Formats include presentations, lightning talks, panels, workshops, and birds of a feather. We’re looking for quality presentations that report on advancements in FOSS development and use. Workshops that help folks get started in or advance understanding of FOSS and tools are also desired.
The last time I attended Hopper was in 2012 and I took two female students. They returned to Western New England University changed; excited by the possibility of a technical career and overjoyed to see so many women in technology. Coincidentally I have been reading “Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age” by Kurt Beyer. I’ve been fascinated to read about her contributions to computing and to the war effort. So please join us in Houston for Hopper 2015 by submitting something to the Open Source track!
Passwords are always going to be vulnerable to being cracked. Fortunately, there are solutions out there that are making it safer for users to interact with services on the web. The new standard in protecting users is Universal 2nd Factor (U2F) authentication which is already available in browsers like Google Chrome.
Mozilla currently has a bug open to start the work necessary to delivering U2F support to people around the globe and bring Firefox into parity with Chrome by offering this excellent new feature to users.
I recently reached out to the folks at Yubico who are very eager to see Universal 2nd Factor (U2F) support in Firefox. So much so that they have offered me the ability to give out up to two hundred Yubikeys with U2F support to testers and will ship them directly to Mozillians regardless of what country you live in so you can follow along with the bug we have open and begin testing U2F in Firefox the minute it becomes available in Firefox Nightly.
If you are a Firefox Nightly user and are interested in testing U2F, please use this form (offer now closed) and apply for a code to receive one of these Yubikeys for testing. (This is only available to Mozillians who use Nightly and are willing to help report bugs and test the patch when it lands)
Thanks again to the folks at Yubico for supporting U2F in Firefox!
Update: This offer is now closed check your email for a code or a request to verify you are a vouched Mozillian! We got more requests also then we had available so only the first two hundred will be fulfilled!
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This note was posted on moodle's quiz forum on January 7, 2015. https://moodle.org/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=277922 I am working on plugging WeBWorK in as a back end for analyzing mathematics questions in a way similar to STACK. I will be using the opaque question type as a starting place.
I am just beginning this project and I expect to have questions for this forum as I proceed so I thought it a good idea to introduce myself.
I am Mike Gage, a math professor at the University of Rochester, (Rochester, NY, USA) and one of the originators of the open source online homework system WeBWorK. It was originally designed to deal with mathematics at the calculus level but it now has questions from middle school through ordinary differential equations, linear algebra and complex analysis.
It already interoperates with Moodle as an assignment module -- there is single sign-on between Moodle and WeBWorK and after the student finishes their WeBWorK homework assignment the grades are returned to the google grade book. My goal is to make WeBWorK work as a question type for Moodle2.x. We already have a question type version for Moodle1.9
For those interested in an example of WeBWorK being used to create question types in Moodle 1.9 (Created by Matt Leventi in 2007) https://devel1.webwork.rochester.edu/moodle/mod/quiz/attempt.php?q=256&forcenew=1 (you can log in using the guest button). This version could use improvement but I don't plan to work on this further unless there is a large demand -- it seems better to put the effort into a Moodle2.x version.
This is very last minute as I have not been able to find enough people interested by directly approaching folks, but I have a great mentoring opportunity for Mozillians. One of my friends is a professor at Western Oregon University and tries to expose her students to a different Open Source project each term and up to bat this term is the Mozilla Project.
So I am looking for mentors from across the project who would be willing to correspond a couple times a week and answer questions from students who are learning about Firefox for Android or Firefox for Desktop.
It is ok not to be an expert on all the questions coming your way but if you do not know then you would help find the right person and get them the answers they need so they do not hit a roadblock.
This opportunity is open to both staff and contributors and the time commitment should not exceed an hour or two a week but realistically could be as little as twenty minutes or so a week to exchange emails.
Not only does this opportunity help expose these students to Open Source but also to contributing to our project. In the past, I have mentored students from WOU and the end result was many from the class continued on as contributors.
who has been a contributor for many years. Vineel is raising money for Collab House, a Collaborative Community Space in India which has been used for many Mozilla India events and other open source projects.
By sharing the link to this campaign or contributing some money to the campaign, you will not only support the Mozilla India community but will further Mozilla’s Mission by enabling communities around the globe that help support our mission.
Lets make this campaign a success and support our fellow Mozillians! If every Mozillian shared this or contributed $5 I bet we could have this funded before the deadline!
There are a lot of wonderful challenges in open source: opportunities to learn, to make a difference and to impact the world in a positive way. There are gooddifficulties learning in open source: hard problems we need to solve-for, but usually we’re OK with that- we’re problem solvers, fixers, inventors, builders… we invest in challenge for causes we care about.
But for technical contributors, the potential impact of an individual person weighs heavily on their ability to survive on-boarding. The not-so-good difficulty: Navigating wikis, understanding communication tools, getting a local environment up & running – understanding how to ask for help; how to find tasks that match interests + skillset. It’s can be too hard – too discouraging, and so drop-off occurs. But when you are successful : pride, accomplishment, impact, community, repeat.
Knowing this is why I’m such a fan of Lukas Blakk’s Ascend Project, and Open Hatch Comes to Campus, an initiative of Open Hatch. OHCTC brings curriculum covering the practical skills students need to contribute to open source projects to university campuses as 1-day mentor-lead events. If you think students are already learning about open source participation in higher education, you would (mostly) be wrong.
The results of my online and offline events were super-encouraging, and pointed out just how important it is to create deliberate ‘learning by doing’ opportunities around project on-boarding. ‘Ask us in IRC’ is not a direction people necessarily understand and the problem is magnified: ‘How do get help for asking for help in IRC ‘? And this is true for experienced engineers as well.
This year I hope to grow this experiment a bit more, through deliberately themed ‘Mozilla contribution + Open Hatch . To that end, I spent a bit of time scheming with Shauna of Open Hatch today as to what that could look like. We decided that perhaps: some requests from Universities for events could be run by Reps, or on the flip side, Reps would have support of OHCTC for outreach in their region. Learning opportunities though focused on events, could also be provided online, or as self-study
Mozilla Reps can run events (very well) and with curriculum designed specifically for on-boarding Mozilla projects we think there’s huge potential. And I’ll stop here to acknowledge all of those people who might be skeptical about growing contributors via learning events like this. We talked about that as well, more soon on some themes that emerged.
As a side-note, it’s also a goal of mine to help Reps find better ways to work with other open project partners (vrs taking on all aspects of events alone), and so feeling optimistic the win can cover several needs.
For the next little while Shauna and I, mapped out some action items:
Run one online version of this curriculum (work out the bugs)
Run one USA/North America event (Pilot)
Run one European or Asian event (Pilot)
I know Open Hatch has additional goals outside of universities (libraries for example), and to expand beyond the 1-time workshop, which coincidentally aligns with some of the things Webmaker Code Clubs are hoping to do. I feel this will be a fantastic year for partnering with other open projects like Open Hatch. Excited for the potential and…will keep you updated. If you are interested in helping – I’ll provide a bit more info on that soon as well.
Mozilla will be at Southern California Linux Expo (Scale13x) again this year with a booth so be sure to stop by if you live in the area or will be attending. This year the organizers have offered Mozillians a special promo code to get 50% off their registration simply use the code “MOZ” when registering!
Title: 9th International Conference on e-Learning 2015
Where: Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Date: 21 - 24 July 2015
Information: This conference is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (MCCSIS 2015) which will also be held in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain from 21 - 24 July 2015. The website for this Multi Conference is http://www.mccsis.org/.
The e-Learning 2015 conference aims to address the main issues of concern within e-Learning. This conference covers both the technical as well as the non-technical aspects of e-Learning.
The conference accepts submissions in the following seven main areas:
1. Organisational Strategy and Management Issues 2. Technological Issues 3. e-Learning Curriculum Development Issues 4. Instructional Design Issues 5. e-Learning Delivery Issues 6. e-Learning Research Methods and Approaches 7. e-Skills and Information Literacy for Learning
For more details please check http://www.elearning-conf.org/call-for-papers
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We also participated in 3000+ events worldwide and that is a pretty amazing feat in itself and I honestly do not know of many open source projects or companies that could come close to that figure. The fact is we had a really awesome year and all of our work is not done some of the things we started in 2014 will continue into 2015 and as exciting as 2014 was for us I’m betting we can do 2015 even bigger.
Remember Mozillians, we punch way above our weight and really are that David fighting Goliath and I think considering we will have a relentless focus on product next year the future for Mozilla is very bright.
Some of the things I look forwarding to working on next year:
Continued improvement of Firefox ESR for our Enterprise, Academic and Government users
Expand our presence at events that focus on Learning, Libraries (as in books) and serving underrepresented groups
Have a Mozilla presence at events we would not usually be at (we need to reach new people!)
Support Thunderbird in what will hopefully be a comeback year for the project
Growing the North America Community by 10%
What is your Mozilla New Year’s Resolutions? Aim high!
My dissertation is about the role of software in scholarly communication. Specifically, I’m interested in the way software code is itself a kind of scholarly communication, and how the informal communications around software production represent and constitute communities of scientists. I see science as a cognitive task accomplished by the sociotechnical system of science, including both scientists and their infrastructure. Looking particularly at scientist’s use of communications infrastructure such as email, issue trackers, and version control, I hope to study the mechanisms of the scientific process much like a neuroscientist studies the mechanisms of the mind by studying neural architecture and brainwave activity.
To get a grip on this problem I’ve been building BigBang, a tool for collecting data from open source projects and readying it for scientific analysis.
I have also been reading background literature to give my dissertation work theoretical heft and to procrastinate from coding. This is why I have been reading Imre Lakatos’ Proofs and Refutations (1976).
Proofs and Refutations is a brilliantly written book about the history of mathematical proof. In particular, it is an analysis of informal mathematics through an investigation of the letters written by mathematicians working on proofs about the Euler characteristic of polyhedra in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Whereas in the early 20th century, based on the work of Russel and Whitehead and others, formal logic was axiomatized, prior to this mathematical argumentation had less formal grounding. As a result, mathematicians would argue not just substantively about the theorem they were trying to prove or disprove, but also about what constitutes a proof, a conjecture, or a theorem in the first place. Lakatos demonstrates this by condensing 200+ years of scholarly communication into a fictional, impassioned classroom dialog where characters representing mathematicians throughout history banter about polyhedra and proof techniques.
What’s fascinating is how convincingly Lakatos presents the progress of mathematical understanding as an example of dialectical logic. Though he doesn’t use the word “dialectical” as far as I’m aware, he tells the story of the informal logic of pre-Russellian mathematics through dialog. But this dialog is designed to capture the timeless logic behind what’s been said before. It takes the reader through the thought process of mathematical discovery in abbreviated form.
I’ve had conversations with serious historians and ethnographers of science who would object strongly to the idea of a history of a scientific discipline reflecting a “timeless logic”. Historians are apt to think that nothing is timeless. I’m inclined to think that the objectivity of logic persists over time much the same way that it persists over space and between subjects, even illogical ones, hence its power. These are perhaps theological questions.
What I’d like to argue (but am not sure how) is that the process of informal mathematics presented by Lakatos is strikingly similar to that used by software engineers. The process of selecting a conjecture, then of writing a proof (which for Lakatos is a logical argument whether or not it is sound or valid), then having it critiqued with counterexamples, which may either be global (counter to the original conjecture) or local (counter to a lemma), then modifying the proof, then perhaps starting from scratch based on a new insight… all this reads uncannily like the process of debugging source code.
The argument for this correspondence is strengthened by later work in theory of computation and complexity theory. I learned this theory so long ago I forget who to attribute it to, but much of the foundational work in computer science was the establishment of a correspondence between classes of formal logic and classes of programming languages. So in a sense its uncontroversial within computer science to consider programs to be proofs.
As I write I am unsure whether I’m simply restating what’s obvious to computer scientists in an antiquated philosophical language (a danger I feel every time I read a book, lately) or if I’m capturing something that could be an interesting synthesis. But my point is this: that if programming language design and the construction of progressively more powerful software libraries is akin to the expanding of formal mathematical knowledge from axiomatic grounds, then the act of programming itself is much more like the informal mathematics of pre-Russellian mathematics. Specifically, in that it is unaxiomatic and proofs are in play without necessarily being sound. When we use a software system, we are depending necessarily on a system of imperfected proofs that we fix iteratively through discovered counterexamples (bugs).
Is it fair to say, then, that whereas the logic of software is formal, deductive logic, the logic of programming is dialectical logic?
Bear with me; let’s presume it is. That’s a foundational idea of my dissertation work. Proving or disproving it may or may not be out of scope of the dissertation itself, but it’s where it’s ultimately headed.
The question is whether it is possible to develop a formal understanding of dialectical logic through a scientific analysis of the software collaboration. (see a mathematical model of collective creativity). If this could be done, then we could then build better software or protocols to assist this dialectical process.
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Two weeks ago some 1000+ Mozillians gathered in Portland for a workweek. Attendance was, as usual, from all over the world – staff and volunteers all working really hard, together, to visualize 2015 – and in the evenings we met at various restaurants all over town to unwind and socialize. It was on one of these nights at the Deschutes Brewery , I met and was inspired by Nigel Babu and the story of Mozilla Sheriffs. ‘Sheriffing’ is not just the coolest contributor title – but a truly amazing collaboration of people across the world working to ensure the Firefox & B2G trees build correctly each night. Across the continent – there is always Sheriff watching.
Nigel made me aware that even for the most impactful contributors – recognition is sometimes rare, or is limited to specific areas of the project – rarely does that news bubble up. I would say that most of us don’t turn up expecting recognition – but it is nice to feel appreciated, and valued. I’m imagining a 2015 where recognition is something we all practice.
To that end, I am writing this blog post, an interview to recognize Nigel but also to start a challenge to others in the community – to write about, tweet about – ‘make some noise in some way’ about a community member (staff or volunteer) making impact on Mozilla’s mission, or someone who has inspired you personally. Tag it with #mozlove , and nominate someone else. I am nominating @larissashapiro@foxymary@prashishh@Sofien_Chourabi@bkerensa to do the same.
Let’s end 2015 with love-stories about community members like Nigel.
Nigel, can you tell me a bit about yourself ?
I live in Delhi, India (just recently moved from Bangalore) and I work as a Senior Systems Administrator at Open Knowledge. I’ve been an open source contributor for several years, starting by contributing to Ubuntu in 2009. Since then, I’ve been active in the open source world and it’s now part of my day job.
I learned about a very cool contributor title in Mozilla called ‘Sheriff’s’ and that you are one! Can you tell me more about this role, and what is it that inspired you to contribute?
Every time someone commits code to Firefox or B2G, there’s an array of builds and tests kicked off on various platforms. Sometimes, these tests take hours to run and the developer may not be aware that they broke something. As a sheriff, we watch the trees to ensure that our tests and builds don’t break. The Sheriffs team also helps folks land their patch onto repository if, for whatever reason, they do not want to land it themselves.
The inspiration for contributing to Sheriffs team is entirely incidental. At the summit in Santa Clara last year, I was sitting in the lobby next to Wes Kocher. We started having a conversation and he invited me to his talk later that day. When I attended the talk, I realized I knew Ed Morely from the London office. During the talk, Ed, Ryan, and Wes convinced me I could help. There was a bit of a gap in coverage between Wes in the US West Coast and Carsten, in Germany and I was in a perfect timezone to help.
The team got me the access I need to start marking failures as intermittent and wrote documentation from the conversations and questions I raised. Over the months, I’ve made plenty of mistakes and I’ve also gotten more confidence in fixing issues. There’s been a day when I’ve had to call up Nick Thomas in New Zealand followed by Chris Cooper in Toronto because there was an infrastructure issue needing all trees to be closed.
How long have you been contributing to Mozilla – Is Sheriffing where you started contributing to Mozilla, or was there a journey here?
I’ve been contributing to Mozilla since 2011. I started my contributions by helping with developing input.mozilla.org. The codebase has changed drastically since then and I’ve blogged about my initial story already.
I also learned from our conversation, that Sherriffing takes global cooperation, for timezones – can you tell me a bit more about that?
Sheriffing is handed over from shift to shift throughout the week. I watch the tree in the mornings in my timezone (almost all the time with Phil for company). Around afternoon, Carsten, takes over from me. After him, it’s Ryan’s turn, and finally Wes. After Wes, it’s a mix of Phil and I watching the tree again.
What feels most rewarding about contributing to Mozilla? I suppose what I’m wondering is – what sustains your involvement – keeps you involved?
Sheriffing has it’s own feedback. Every day as we do backouts and keep the tree green, I know that while it temporarily disrupts work, in the long run, it’s helping developers merge their code into Firefox sooner without issues
The Mozilla Foundation is a non-profit organization that promotes openness, innovation and participation on the Internet. We promote the values of an open Internet to the broader world. Mozilla is best known for the Firefox browser, but we advance our mission through other software projects, grants and engagement and education efforts.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation is the leading nonprofit organization defending civil liberties in the digital world. Founded in 1990, EFF champions user privacy, free expression, and innovation through impact litigation, policy analysis, grassroots activism, and technology development.
The ACLU is our nation’s guardian of liberty, working daily in courts, legislatures and communities to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is a nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to encouraging the growth, development and distribution of free, multilingual, educational content, and to providing the full content of these wiki-based projects to the public free of charge. The Wikimedia Foundation operates some of the largest collaboratively edited reference projects in the world, including Wikipedia, a top-ten internet property.
ACF International, a global humanitarian organization committed to ending world hunger, works to save the lives of malnourished children while providing communities with access to safe water and sustainable solutions to hunger.
These six non-profits are just one of many causes to support but these ones specifically are playing a pivotal role in protecting the internet, protecting liberties, educating people around the globe or helping reduce hunger.
Even if you cannot support one of these causes, consider giving this post a share to add visibility to your friends and family and help support these causes in the new year!
Aplikasi android yang banyak di download - Mendengar aplikasi android tentu sobat sudah terbayang betapa banyak jumlahnya berbagai macam dan beragam. namun sobat bisa mengetahui aplikasi apa saja yang banyak diminati. Smartphone dengan sistem operasi Android memang cukup populer bahkan mayoritas pengguna smartphone di seluruh dunia juga memilih memakai smartphone Android. Alasan utama mengapa
Using a series of questions covering legal issues, governance, standards, knowledge sharing and market access, the tool helps you to identify potential problem areas for users, contributors and partners.
Unlike earlier models designed to evaluate open source projects, this model can also be applied to both open and closed source software products.
We’ve used the Openness Rating internally at OSS Watch for several years as a key part of our consultancy work, but this is the first time we’ve made the app itself open for anyone to use. It requires a fair bit of knowledge to get the most out of it, but even at a basic level its useful for highlighting questions that a project needs to be able to answer.
It has been pretty sad to see the City of Portland continue to blockade Uber from servicing people in Portland, Oregon. It really seems like the City is shielding dinosaur taxi companies that have built a reputation of providing poor service at top dollar. Yep, that’s right. I think taxi service in Portland stinks but I’m not the only one. So do the thousands who live in Portland and better yet the thousands of people who travel here to be a tourist or do business each year.
One of my friends was in town some months back and she grabbed a cab with Broadway Cab back to the airport and the driver was making misogynistic comments the entire way about how women drivers should be taken off the road, but this is just one example. There are lots of others like the one where a cab driver forced a lesbian couple out of the cab on the freeway.
Taxi service in Portland sucks and taxi service in most cities sucks but in Portland the experience hurts for locals and visitors a lot more than other cities. This is why I am a big supporter of services like Uber and Lyft coming to Portland and disrupting the status quo of an industry that does not want to provide its customers a good service at a good price.
You can listen to politicians touting how Uber doesn’t have insurance or how they are not playing by the rules but these are all just excuses. Uber does have good liability insurance and has tried to play by the city’s rules but the city has rules that block Uber and protect the taxi industry.
Now you can listen to Steve Novick posture on this issue more and more but think about it and give Uber a try and I bet you will agree that Uber is a much better service than Broadway Cab, Radio Cab, Sassys Cab or Green Cab can offer. In fact, a coalition of both big business and small business owners in Portland wrote the city council asking them to support Uber.
Membuat Status facebook yang mengandung kalimat motivasi islami - Menulis dan berbicara tentang kata-kata baik dan islami tak harus menjadi seorang ustad, menyebarkan kata-kata kebaikan tak harus ada di mimbar-mimbar tertentu karena sobat juga bisa melakukannya di berbagai tempat salah satunya adalah lewat sosial media yang bernama facebook, twitter, google plus, daripada membuat status yang
What a wonderful all hands we had this past week. The entire week was full of meetings and planning and I must say I was exhausted by Thursday having been up each day working by 6:00am and going to bed by midnight.
I’m very happy to report that I made a lot of progress on meeting with more people to discuss the future of Firefox Extended Support Release and how to make it a much better offering to organizations.
I also spent some time talking to folks about Firefox in Ubuntu and rebranding Iceweasel to Firefox in Debian (fingers crossed something will happen here in 2015). Also it was great to participate in discussions around making all of the Firefox channels offer more stability and quality to our users.
It was great to hear that we will be doing some work to bring Firefox to iOS which I think will fill a gap that has existed for our users of OSX who have an iPhone. Anyways, what I can say about this all hands is that there were lots of opportunities for discussions on quality and the future is looking very bright.
Also a big thanks to Lukas Blakk who put together an early morning excursion to Sherwood Ice Arena where Mozillians played some matches of hockey which I took photos of here.
As the discussion on Ubuntu Governance has progressed, it seems the Community Council decided to host a meeting the other day to discuss the topic while the conversation pivoted around a few topics.
I want to add my two cents and say I really do not think that the Ubuntu Community has suffered from a lack of leadership and good governance, both separate things. I think Jonathan Carter (Highvoltage) really nailed it when he said this in the Community Council meeting “if you visit a canonical page on community and how to get involved, it’s *full* of whatever’s important to canonical right now” and he went on to add some examples on where Canonical has in the past just made important decisions without input from Community and pointed out there are even more recent examples he could offer.
So the real issue is if the Ubuntu Community wants to tackle it is not leadership or governance because we have brilliant leaders and members of governance but instead it is making contributors feel like they are stakeholders again and kept in the loop. Mind you, the Canonical Community Team has repeatedly promised to help Canonical employees get better at keeping the community in the loop even promising such at UDS-P but my experience has been they never really got better.
Finally, I think an Ubuntu Foundation is still a great idea and could create some harmony between Canonical’s commercial interests and the community interests of the project. Projects that have had companies controlling the project have never had great success at sustaining a community because the commercial interests always win at the end of the day.
Something needs to be done otherwise there will be a continued decline in participation in Ubuntu. Let me say the only reason Ubuntu Membership has not had the same downtrend as UDS participation and governance participation is because you do not need to be re-vetted to be an Ubuntu Member. We have folks who are Ubuntu members who have not been on IRC, Mailing List or anywhere in the project in years but are still members. The reality is that if we just looked at contributions, the actual amount of contributors today is far less than the member rolls represent.
10 Orang Pendiri Facebook Beserta Alamat Asli Profilnya - Facebook yang didirikan oleh Mark Zuckerberg ini merupakan situs jejaring sosial yang paling fenomenal. Jumlah pemilik akun Facebook di seluruh dunia juga menyentuh angka 1 Milyard lebih pengguna. sejarah nama besar nama facebook tak lepas dari mereka-meraka yang ikut andil dalam pengembangan teknologi yang ada di dalam facebook mereka
At Mozilla we’re always thinking about how to improve our products, how to continue a legacy of innovation and quality while shipping often. That said, we can’t talk about Mozilla’s history, or future without acknowledging the critical role of our global volunteer community in our success, and of it’s importance to our future. Software is made by people, and community is made both by and of people.
This year’s learnings around the challenges of contributor growth and retention, come with a recognition that we have two very different tracks of ‘shipping Mozilla': How we ship product, and how we grow community are distinct, and there is no doubt that the betterment of both lies in the scaling a human network.
Designing for participation is really about designing for people , it’s about building an ecosystem of empowerment. We’re learning that our most successful pathways reflect diversity of community background, skill-set, available time and motivation.
The aha-moment of open source contribution is when someone feels successful in ‘doing a thing’. Be it connecting to a chat room with an IRC tool, or building a local copy of Webmaker.org, it’s that first success that drives the next. These successes need to happen long before a first pull request, even before taking a ‘mentored bug’. We need to get better at helping people reach their first ‘Mozilla moment’, through deliberate and predictable teaching and learning ‘by doing’ opportunities. We’ve already started doing this in person with Open Hatch events and curriculum, but scaling this means building online opportunities.
We need to provide ongoing, predictable, transparent and inclusive educational opportunities for volunteer community and product teams working with volunteers
Mentoring is core to the success of our community. Staff AND volunteers, go farther when someone is there to encourage their success, to answer their questions and to help strategize for the future. The Mozilla Reps program is a great example of how we can scale participation through thoughtful and ongoing mentorship .
The Mozilla Guides project is proving that by offering a searchable, scale-able, organized resource for brand new Mozillians who need encouragement, coaching, and mentors, to take their first steps and find the projects they want to make an impact on .
Mentoring is done well already in some places at Mozilla. The Reps program has done an incredible job of building a network of mentors, and mentoring is at the core of its success. We need to make mentors and mentoring easily available and usefully structured for all Mozillians at all levels of skill and participation.
Designing Participation Tracks
Designing participation for a college graduate is much different than designing for an experienced C# engineer interested in transitioning strong technical skills to open source ecosystem. Making pathways as simple as possible for the episodic volunteers , is as important as providing long-term opportunities. What other types of participation should we be considering? Is Mozilla contribution accessible for those with disabilities? How do we plug one into the other?
What does it look like to show up as an organized group effort? How do schools and companies interested in lending skills to a project on an single, or ongoing basis get involved?
We suggest that we framing Mozilla contribution as an opportunity for individuals and organized groups. Corporations can lend time and technical talent for skill & team building , while universities across the world can their better help students for the job market through the opportunity that is – contributing to Mozilla. Mozilla in kind, can define on-ramps for organizations (corporations, universities, other open source projects, and more) to be able to easily find opportunities and make an impact – and develop mutual benefit.
A Community Building Community
We’ve been saying that community building is everyone’s job at Mozilla, but what we haven’t explicitly said – is that we’re building a community around ‘community building in Mozilla’. This means, we need to get better at sharing resources across the project. We need improved communication mechanisms to help avoid duplication of efforts. We need to be more deliberate about reaching out with what we’ve learned.
Designing for humans ensures that those who want to go fast (move fast and break things, if you will) – can, and those who want to be more deliberate in their process will get there too. Our collective speed of innovation, development, and impact will increase when we are deliberate about mentorship, teaching and growing a connected community of community designers – as core tenets of participation design, human infrastructure, and volunteer empowerment at Mozilla.
Larissa and I would love your feedback on these thoughts around radical participation at Mozilla.
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George Siemens, a well-known expert on online education, wrote an interesting article entitled "Massive Open Online Courses: Innovation in Education?". You can obtain a PDF version of this article from this location:
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This post has been a long-time coming, as there are important changes to the Reps Mentorship program SOP and process as a result of RemoCamp Berlin.
A quick background! I believe very, very much in the power of mentorship in general, and in Reps specifically I know that in mentorship lies the potential to unlock the possibilities of all Reps can achieve together if we value the opportunity of empowering each other. That said, this role to-date, has been loosely implemented as more of a administrative role – and that’s about to change.
In Berlin we ran a carousel for Rep Mentors, where my station was labelled ‘Mentorship’. I asked each rotation to speak to their best experiences of mentoring and being mentored through storytelling. I love storytelling in facilitation – not only as a way for people to share their experiences, but as an opportunity for story-teller and listener alike to build a collective vision for the future.
As people shared their experiences, we identified and documented themes. I also asked everyone to share a non-positive/learning experience about the same, which in the end told us a lot about what people really valued in the mentorship experience . Everyone was different, but core attributes emerged: communication, empowerment, listening, feedback and respect.
Based on the feedback, I have updated the Mozilla Mentor SOP , and added a Mentor Training SOP. BOTH are ready for feedback, but if you’re not dedicated to reading every line in the wiki here are the important highlights.
Mozilla Reps recognizes that our primary goals are best reached through the support, encouragement, and empowerment of community through mentorship. Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, made possible through regular and supportive interaction.
We encourage mentors to be as open to learning from their mentees, as they are to teaching, for the benefit and growth of both individuals and the program as a whole.
Being a Mozilla Reps mentor also requires a familiarity with different tools and processes that the Council has put in place to better streamline the way Mozilla Reps can document their activities, request budgets for projects, order swag and interact with other Reps.
In the SOP, you’ll notice that the mentor roles has been broken-down into two specific categories ‘Mentorship’ and ‘Administration’. Previously, all tasks were related to the administration-focused tasks, these changes reflect the feedback from Remo Camp on what helps make a good mentor – humanness.
Addition of an Orientation Call. To facilitate some of the goals we had around communication empowerment, listening and respect – we’ve added an Orientation Call to the new Rep orientation process. This occurs 2-4 weeks after a Rep has been accepted, and this new SOP includes recommendations for creating efficient feedback loops, and goal-setting. The orientation call is very, very important in setting expectations for both sides.
We also decided to REMOVE the ‘no-brainer’ option in the interview process for Reps. Previously, this was based on existing knowledge of someone’s ability to perform as a Rep, but without consideration that interview helps start the conversation about the mentor relationship which is new. ALL applicants must be interviewed.
Finally, based on ALL the feedback at Remo Camp and ALL the things I could gather on mentorship I created an initialMentor Training SOP. We’ll be running through this for our next group of mentors, and continue to improve it based on their feedback – with hope we can eventually have one or mentor-training videos.
So that’s it! Although, trust me that a lot of work when into this at RemoCamp and beyond (special thanks to Ankit & Sara and all the Mozilla Rep Mentors who helped define this new direction!) we welcome feedback, but most of help making this even better. Happy Mentoring!
Today is Ubuntu Community Appreciation Day and I wanted to quickly recognize the following people, but before doing so, I want to thank all the contributors that make the Ubuntu Community what it is.
Elizabeth Krumbach Joseph
Elizabeth is a stellar community contributor who has provided solid leadership and mentorship to thousands of Ubuntu Contributors over the years. She is always available to lend an ear to a Community Contributor and provide advice. Her leadership through the Community Council has been amazing and she has always done what is in the best interest of the Community.
Charles is a friend of the Community and long time contributor who is always providing excellent and sensical feedback as we have discussions in the community. He is among a few who will always call it how he sees it and always has the community’s best interest in mind. For me he was very helpful when I first started building communities in Ubuntu and shared his own experiences and how to get through bureaucracy and do awesome.
Michael is a Canonical Employee who started as a Community Contributor and I think of all the employees I have met that work for Canonical it is Michael who has always seemed to be able to balance his role at Canonical and contributing best. He is always fair when dealing with contributors and has an uncanny ability to see things through the Community lenses which I think many at Canonical cannot. I appreciate his leadership on the Community Council.
Thanks again to all those who make Ubuntu one of the best linux distros available for Desktop, Server and Cloud! You all rock!
Guides continues to get busier, and as we’ve had an expected drop-off of Guides from our original group, I want to thank those who are really championing the development and leadership so far in Guides
Jennie Rose Halprin
With a special shout-out to Ioana, who swept in and saved the day with our many QA questions – Thanks Ioana!
We have more and more people coming through, so building workflows is important – special shout-out to David for helping coders get on the proper pathways, those associated with the Get Involved Page, but also through ‘What can I do for Mozilla‘.
We continue to share success stories, including Jennie’s Journalism group which has started to function even outside of her prompts to get involved, which is fantastic. We were fortunate to have Jennie on our call, to share some of her experiences. Thanks Jennie!
I’m thrilled to see more Guides taking the lead in inviting participation through sharing of events and news including Open Science, because the ‘invitation’ to participate is made much clearer through opportunities (vrs not waiting to be asked).
Guides is very connected in spirit to SUMO, so we’re collaborating closely on how our two areas can work together, and sharing mentoring best practices. Of course if you have questions about contributing to SUMO you can ask in Guides Forum for Helping Users.
A few updates in Discourse.
We Split Testing for FIrefox and Firefox OS into two Categories.
Added additional headers (New) and (Unread) to help everyone recognize new and unanswered posts.
I’ve started posting Guide Call updates, in the Guides Forum (moderator access needed to view), so as not to email huge lists of people .
We have a Bug submitted to setup a Dev instance of Discourse so we can test scrollback.io .
We also covered a ‘Best Practice’ for sharing responded to repeated questions with a single answer. All Discourse Forum posts have ‘links’ and so instead of cutting and pasting text, adding the link to responses will all direct to a single place. The benefit of course, is that should you need to update your answer, you only have to do it on one place.
We also added a new category ‘Open Source’, aimed at helping answer questions about the tools, culture and philosophy of working in open source , and Mozilla. We had a good discussion about perhaps creating a few training missions to get started ( Create Bugzilla Account, IRC Cirriculum) among other things. I’ll be working on this next week.
We reviewed the Logo proposals by the very talented Elio Qoshi. You can find his mockups here, I sent him some feedback which generally came down to the blue compass or the red torch. We’ll vote on this in the next week.
Guides Resources as Mozilla Learning Resources
Every Guide needs to read this blog post from Christie on the Learning Resources Wiki, *this* is where we will be adding resources for our functional areas. Please take time to add resources for your functional area, or add them to this Etherpad where I will be collecting my own list. This is a really exciting opportunity to
Avoid duplication of links
Design quality resources through collaboration between functional areas and community.
Align Contribution with Web Literacy – contributing is learning by doing – and contributors do become more web literate as a result of helping Mozilla. Let’s make raise the profile of that.
We’re very busy answering questions and improving workflow, feedback is very much appreciated. In addition to the requets for a Dev Discourse to play with, we’re awaiting an opportunity to evaluate Kit Herder (thanks amazing Community IT!) , for mentoring matches.
Comparisons have been made about whether students who use laptops to type notes during lectures do better than those students who use pens to take notes. Beth Holland made the case for the use of technology in taking notes during seminars or lectures.
The article is labelled "The 4Ss of Note Taking With Technology by Beth Holland".
Essentially, Beth Holland proposed the following 4 questions before one can make a conclusion about this argument:
1. Adequately support the students' learning needs? 2. Allow students to save their notes to multiple locations? 3. Let students search for salient points? 4. Permit students to share with peers and teachers?
This past Saturday I co-organized Portland’s first CLSx Event which we had at Mozilla’s Offices and the discussions we had were really great with many centering around barriers to participation and increasing diversity in communities.
We also dived into some great discussion about curating resources available to communities and really picked apart six or so topics from a dozen or so angles and through various lenses of participants.
I have to say it was really impressive to see the level of diversity we had in attendee turnout with a majority of attendees being women and most attendees being from non-tech community backgrounds.
At the end of the event we spent a good 15 minutes discussing improvements for the next CLSxPortland and discussed whether having another event in a few months would be worthwhile. Overall, I think the event was a great success and I think our next CLSx will be even bigger and better.
The other day there was a trivial blog post that came across Planet Ubuntu which proclaimed that a certain LoCo in the Ubuntu Community was no longer going to use the LoCo term because they felt it was offensive in spanish.
I want to point out if there is any confusion around what LoCo means that LoCo means Local Community and is not a spanish word. There is no Ubuntu ENTERLOCALEHERE Loco or loco but only Ubuntu ENTERLOCALEHERE LoCo. If you somehow missed the meaning of this abbreviation, you now know that LoCo is a positive abbreviation and one that has been used by our Local Communities since the inception of the Local Community Program.
That being said, I would encourage people to not get so hung up on words because despite what you think Users, Distros, Linux for Human Beings, Debian are all excellent words to use and the Old Ubuntu Community you know the roots of where this project came from still means a lot to people.
I was really saddened to see Jono Bacon’s post today because it really seems like he still doesn’t get the Ubuntu Community that he managed for years. In fact, the things he is talking about are problems that the Community Council and Governance Boards really have no influence over because Canonical and Mark Shuttleworth limit the Community’s ability to participate in those kind of issues.
As such, we need to look to our leadership…the Community Council, the Technical Board, and the sub-councils for inspiration and leadership.
We need for Canonical to start caring about Community again and investing in things like a physical Ubuntu Developer Summit for contributors to come together and have a really valuable event where they can do work and build relationships that really cannot be built over Google Hangout or IRC alone.
We need these boards to not be reactive but to be proactive…to constantly observe the landscape of the Ubuntu community…the opportunities and the challenges, and to proactively capitalize on protecting the community from risk while opening up opportunity to everyone.
If this is what we need, then Canonical and Mark need to make it so Community Members and Ubuntu Governance have some real say in the project. Sure, right now the Governance Boards can give advice to Canonical or Mark but it should be more than advice. There should be a scenario where the Contributors and Governance are stakeholders.
I will add that one Ubuntu Community Council’s members remark to Jono on IRC about his blog post really made the most sense:
the board have no power to be inspirational and forging new directions, Canonical does
I really like that this council member spoke up on this and I agree with that assessment of things.
I am sure this post may offend some members of these boards, but it is not mean’t too. This is not a reflection of the current staffing, this is a reflection of the charter and purpose of these boards. Our current board members do excellent work with good and strong intentions, but within that current charter. We need to change that charter though, staff appropriately, and build an inspirational network of leaders that sets everyone in this great community up for success. This, I believe will transform Ubuntu into a new world of potential, a level of potential I have always passionately believed in.
Honestly, if this is the way Jono felt then I think he should have been going to bat for the Community and Ubuntu Governance when he was Community Manager because right now the Community and Governance cannot be inspirational leaders because Canonical controls the future of Ubuntu and the Community Council, Governance Boards and Ubuntu Members have very little say in the direction of the project.
I encourage folks to go read Jono’s post and share your thoughts with him but also read the comments in his blog post from current and former members of Ubuntu’s Governance and contributors to Ubuntu. In closing I would like to also applaud the work of the current and former Community Councils and Governance Boards you all do great work!